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|Servings: 60 caps.|
Life Extension Two-Per-Day is a high-quality vitamin-mineral formula, based on clinically tested, patented and biologically active forms of both vitamins and minerals, as well as other health-promoting nutrients. Compared to conventional products, this preparation has up to 50 times greater potency of individual nutrients.
Life Extension Two-Per-Day comprises the following ingredients:
Vitamin A (as beta-carotene and retinol acetate) – the common name of fat soluble retinoids (retinol, retinal and retinoic acid), of which the most important one is retinol, showing the highest bioactivity. These compounds stimulate growth and differentiation of epithelial cells as well as increase the synthesis of membrane glycoproteins.
Vitamin A plays an important role in the reception of visual stimuli in the retina of the eye, is responsible for the integrity of cell membranes, regulates growth of epithelial tissue and other cells in the body, maintains the normal condition of skin, hair and nails and supports the growth of healthy bones and teeth.
Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid and calcium ascorbate) is an essential, water-soluble vitamin that must be supplied with food because the human being is not able to synthesise it. It neutralises oxygen free radicals and helps protect cells from oxidative stress. In addition, it's involved in the metabolism of tyrosine, in the production of corticosteroids, noradrenaline, bile acids, carnitine, erythrocytes and acts as a coenzyme in collagen maturation.
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is an organic steroid compound, traditionally classified as a vitamin, however, in the human body it functions as a prohormone. It's formed from cholesterol in the skin in response to the exposure to UVB sun rays. Its main function is to increase calcium absorption in the intestines and reduce the excretion by the kidneys which therefore regulates calcium-phosphate balance and affects bone structure.
What's more, vitamin D has immunomodulatory and partly antimicrobial properties. Vitamin D supports the innate immunity and simultaneously causes the acquired immunosuppression, thereby inhibiting autoimmune reactions. Scientists have also proven that it contributes to reducing the risk of type 1 diabetes and some types of cancer, improves insulin secretion and glucose tolerance and protects genes against mutations.
Vitamin E (as a natural mixture of tocopherols) - a group of eight compounds with antioxidant properties: tocopherols and tocotrienols, among which each form has a slightly different biological activity; it's the main antioxidant in the body to protect cells from an excess of free radicals. It participates in the delivery of nutrients to cells, strengthens the walls of blood vessels, extends the life of red blood cells, treats male infertility, prevents arteriosclerosis and heart diseases.
Thiamine (vitamin B1) – plays a key role in energy metabolism, in particular in the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids during the process of cellular respiration. In the body, it's converted into its bioactive form – thiamine pyrophosphorate. As a necessary part of many metabolic and biochemical pathways, it affects the nervous system and brain function.
As a prerequisite for the proper metabolism of glucose and carbohydrates, it facilitates the supply of the right amount of energy to nervous cells, resulting in normal concentration and more optimism. Moreover, as thiamine triphosphate, it is involved in the conduction of nerve impulses. By phosphorylating a chloride channel in the membrane of a nerve cell, it functions at the same time as its activator. Thiamine deficiency causes neurological disorders.
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) – essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system and the process of biological oxidation in cells. It has a vital role in the aerobic energy production where it's a precursor of two basic nucleotide coenzymes: FMN and FAD which are also the active form of riboflavin. It facilitates the energy production from carbohydrates and fats, is a cofactor of respiratory enzymes and is essential for body growth and the production of red cells. Its deficiency leads among others to dizziness and lack of concentration.
FMN (flavin mononucleotide) is an ester of phosphoric acid and riboflavin. It takes part in multiple redox reactions of living organisms, e.g. in the synthesis of FAD. It has a substantial role in cellular respiration in the respiratory chain where it's a component of a large protein complex (NADH dehydrogenase) which accepts electrons from NADH and transfer them further, up to the oxygen atoms. The function of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation is the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 and keeping the released energy in an ATP molecule. These processes take place in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Niacin (vitamin B3) – also known as vitamin PP – occurs in two biologically active forms: nicotinic acid (nicotinate) and nicotinamide/niacinamide (nicotinic acid niamide). The bioactivity of this compound is associated with the nicotinamide ring of the NAD + and NADP+ coenzyme, involved in reduction-oxidation reactions (redox). This vitamin is responsible for the proper functioning of the brain and peripheral nervous system, the synthesis of sex hormones, cortisol, insulin and thyroxine (T4).
Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine and P-5-P) – a group of six compounds (pyridoxine, pirydoxal and pyridoxamine and their 5'-phosphates) from which the biologically active form is pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, abbreviated as P-5-P. This vitamin participates in numerous metabolic processes as a coenzyme, mainly in the metabolism of amino acids (transamination and decarboxylation) and muscle glycogen (glycogen phosphorylase). In addition, it's crucial in the mechanism of action of steroid hormones – it breaks the bond between hormone-receptor complex and DNA, inhibiting their activity.
What's more, vitamin B6 aids in the proper synthesis of cysteine, stimulates the supply of neurons with glucose, assists in the normal functioning of the nervous system, helps to achieve correct metabolism of homocysteine. It's necessary for the synthesis of antibodies and red blood cells, and a lot of evidence supports the effectiveness of its use in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Methylfolate (as 5-Me-THF) – also known as vitamin B9 or B11; the biologically active form of folic acid which in the body acts as a coenzyme in the transfer of active one-carbon groups (methyl, formyl, forminino, methylene and methenyl groups). It's recommended for people with impaired methylation and high homocysteine levels and for pregnant women. It supports cognitive functions and functioning of the cardiovascular system.
Vitamin B12 (as methylcobalamin) – a biologically active form of vitamin B12 which positively affects functions of the nervous system and the brain, improves methylation, lowers homocysteine levels and is crucial in the growth and replication of cells.
Biotin (vitamin B7, vitamin H) is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes which means that it is involved in the transfer of the carboxyl group to various organic compounds – e.g. in gluconeogenesis, the Krebs cycle and the synthesis of fatty acids. It supports functioning of the thyroid gland and affects the condition of skin and hair.
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) – as coenzyme A (CoA), it acts as a carrier of acyl groups in many important metabolic processes, including the Krebs cycle. It also speeds up wound healing, prevents fatigue and supports the cardiovascular system. It takes part in tissue repair and improves pigmentation and the condition of hair.
Calcium – an essential element (macroelement) for the proper functioning of the body and first and foremost to maintain the normal structure of bones and teeth. Calcium ions are involved in the conduction of nerve impulses and neuromuscular communication.
Iodine – a microelement stored in the thyroid gland, a consituent of the thyroid hormones – thyroxine and triiodothyronine, performing an essential role in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals and regulating growth.
Magnesium – is an activator of many enzymes, directly or indirectly affecting metabolic pathways. More than half of magnesium is found in bones, 25% of this element is located in skeletal muscles and the rest is distributed mostly in the nervous system and organs with high metabolic activity, i.e. in the heart muscle, liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, endocrine glands and lymphatic system.
Boron – plays a significant role in the synthesis of nucleic acids and maintenance of the body's normal calcium balance; has an impact on brain cell activity.
Chromium – a mineral essential to life (microelement), present in active sites of different enzymes where it is also involved in the metabolism of fat and carbohydrates. Its deficiency reduces the sensitivity of cells to insulin activity, causes impaired immunity and decreased performance, disrupts appetite control mechanisms and may contribute to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes.
Zinc – has an essential role in metabolic reactions at the cellular level and participates in the stabilization of cell membranes. It's a constituent of about 200 enzymes involved in various metabolic processes where is present in their active centres and facilitates the correct binding mode of a substrate to an enzyme.
Manganese – is a part of enzymes and their activator. It enhances quality and function of the connective tissue and is a key factor for normal functioning of the brain
Molybdenum –is used in the treatment of anaemia. It promotes well-being.
Potassium – is an essential mineral (microelement) to the human body. Even though it is found in almost all food products, there is sometimes deficiency of this mineral. This element is responsible for normal muscle function and good concentration. It's involved in the transmission of nerve impulses by neurons, provides optimal hydration in the body and is an activator of many enzymes.
Selenium – regulates the functioning of thyroid gland, affects growth and development, including the sexual one, as well as tissue elasticity; removes some toxins from the body and destroys cancer cells.
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) – thioctic acid or lipoic acid – functions as a coenzyme carrying protons and electrons, interacting with oxidoreductases (a class of enzymes catalysing oxidation-reduction reactions). It's one of the scavengers (acceptors) of free radicals, i.e. substances that easily react with free radicals, resulting in the formation of less reactive compounds. Apart from that, lipolic acid has the ability to regenerate reduced forms of ther antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E by restoring their antioxidant potential.
Lycopene belongs to carotenoids which have antioxidant properties. Antioxidants bind reactive oxygen species (free radicals) which are considered to be the cause of cancer and cardiovascular diseases (coronary artery disease, arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure). It is important that lycopene not only neutralises free radicals, but also has the ability to regenerate other antioxidants, e.g. lutein.
To sum up, Life Extension Two-Per-Day is a perfect complex of vitamins, minerals and health-promoting substances that contains bioactive forms of these components Designed to supplement a daily diet, for athletes and as a part of preventive healthcare.
This product contains 2000 IU of vitamin D. You should note that in case of such a high dose you should regularly monitor the levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D. It would be ideal to stay all day in the sun and take care of the vitamin D levels in the body in the natural way. Unfortunately, in our climate it's rather impossible. But, this is where supplements come in. In order to maintain an optimal level of vitamin D in the body, 1 capsule per day is just enough. This vitamin is fat-soluble, so it must be taken with a meal containing fat. It's worth combining with vitamin K2 (to prevent osteoporosis).
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|per daily portion (2 capsules)||amount||%DV|
|Vitamin A (as beta-carotene, acetate) (5,000IU)||1500 mcg||167%|
|Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid, niacinamide and calcium ascorbates)||470 mg||522%|
|Vitamin D3 (as cholecalciferol) (2,000IU)||50 mcg||250%|
|Vitamin E (as D-alpha tocopheryl succinate, D-alpha tocopherol)||67 mg||447%|
|Thiamine (vitamin B1) (as thiamine HCI)||75 mg||6250%|
|Riboflavin (vitamin B2) (as riboflavin, riboflavin 5’-phosphate)||50 mg||3846%|
|Niacin (as niacinamide, niacinamide ascorbate)||50 mg||313%|
|Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine HCI, pyridoxal 5’-phosphate)||75 mg||4412%|
|Folate (as L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate calcium salt)||400 mcg||100%|
|Vitamin B12 (as methylcobalamin)||300 mcg||12500%|
|Pantothenic acid (as D-calcium pantothenate)||50 mg||1000%|
|Iodine (as potassium iodide)||150 mcg||100%|
|magnesium (as magnesium oxide)||100 mg||24%|
|zinc (as zinc citrate, Optizinc® zinc mono-L-methionine sulphate)||25 mg||227%|
|Selenium [as sodium selenite, SelenoExcell® high selenium yeast, Se-Methyl L-Selenocysteine]||200 mcg||364%|
|manganese (as manganese citrate, gluconate)||2 mg||87%|
|chromium [as Crominex® 3+ chromium stabilized with Capros® amla extract (fruit) and PrimaVie® Shilajit]||200 mcg||571%|
|molybdenum (as molybdenum amino acid chelate)||100 mcg||222%|
|Alpha lipoic acid||25 mg||-|
|Natural mixed tocopherols (providing gamma, delta, alpha, beta)||20 mg||-|
|Marigold extract (flowers) [std. to 5 mg trans-lutein and 155 mcg trans-zeaxanthin]||11,12 mg||-|
|Boron (as boron amino acid chelate)||3 mg||-|
|Lycopene [from LycoBeads® natural tomato extract (fruit)]||1 mg||-|
vegetable cellulose (capsule), microcrystalline cellulose, vegetable stearate, rice flour, silica, maltodextrin, chlorophyllin.
Vitamin A (retinol) is present in foods of animal origin (fish of the sea, fish, eels, liver, pork and beef, eggs, butter). In the plant products it is present as provitamin A (b-carotene), a powerful antioxidant. The food products containing pro-vitamin A are fruits in yellow and red, including apricots, tomatoes. Necessary in process of building and assimilation of proteins, affects the normal growth of bones and helps the treatment of eye diseases.Iinhibits the excessive action of the thyroid hormone - thyroxine, which simultaneously prevents the deposition of excess vitamin A. Necessary in the sports diet of in the form of food, such as dietary supplements and nutritional supplements.
Vitamin A deficiency causes growth inhibition, flaking and dryness of the skin, impaired night vision (i.e. Night blindness).
Excess of vitamin A leads to calcification of the bones and some soft tissues, and abnormalities in the functioning of glomerulonephritis
Dosage: Specified in IU and it is 5000 IU per day.
Beta-carotene (provitamin A) is a fat-soluble form of vitamin A (retinol). It is a necessary vitamin for the development and acquisition of proteins, necessary to rebuild a bone structure. Irreplaceable in the treatment of eye diseases (prevents decrease of vision and so called night blindness). It strengthens the immune system. It is a strong oxidant. In its natural form it can be found found only in plants (unlike retinol, which is present in foods of animal origin) such as chard, squash, kale, carrots, apricots, tomatoes). Available in the form of supplements and nutrients as an essential component of the sports diet.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) it is a vitamin soluble in body fluids, can be taken from foods (fruits and vegetables), or as drug derived synthetically. The largest of its resources can be found in broccoli, Brussels sprout, kale, black currant fruit and hawthorn, citrus fruits, tomatoes, Savoy cabbage, potatoes. In fact, intake of vitamin C of the food products does not limit the absorbed quantity. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a potent antioxidant, it is an antitoxic, increasing the immune system due to the elimination of risk of bacterial contamination. Vitamin C prevents rupture of blood vessels, affects the blood cholesterol level. It substantially increases the absorption of iron. Inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Lowers stress levels.
Vitamin C deficiency causes abnormal development of connective tissue, cracking capillaries, abnormal calcification of bone tissue, impaired absorption of iron, scorbutus. With the lack of vitamin C, all kinds of injuries do not heal up properly. Vitamin C deficiency can be caused by smoking; each cigarette is destroying up to 100 mg of vitamin C.
Dosage: The demand is 60-80 mg daily. It does not limit the ability to consume higher doses. Some side effects may occur only with longer taking of synthetic vitamin C.
Ascorbic acid – vitamin C. Its biologically active form is the L-isomer, which negatively rotates the polarised light, so that it is a dextroisomer (laevorotatory vitamin C does not exist). It is a strong antioxidant; it reduces the amounts of free radicals, which reduces oxidative stress, a factor leading to cell apoptosis, which is why it is indicated to be a cause for premature ageing.
It supports the immune system functions and increases body system immunity. It is an essential element of the collagen synthesis path, which is why it positively affects the condition of connective tissue. Hence, it promotes also wound healing and increases the durability of capillary vessel. It is involved in transformations of tyrosine and carnitine as well as of some nutrients, so that it affects metabolism. It can also have an impact on the nervous system functions, as it reduces mental fatigue.
Higher supply of vitamin C is especially recommended in the periods of more intensive body system burden, after infections and in order to accelerate regeneration. The indications for increased supply of the vitamin are also hard physical work or intensive trainings.
Calcium (element chem. symbol Ca, atomic no. 20, the group of alkaline earth metals) is the basic building substance of bones and teeth, in which stored is 99% of the element, in the form of hydroxylapatite. When building bones and teeth, phosphorus is very important in the right proportion. It is a base-forming element and activator of many enzymes (ATPase) necessary to release the energy of ATP. It has a significant effect on blood clotting and regulates blood pressure and neuromuscular conductivity. Thanks to the reduced permeability of cell membranes, it soothes the symptoms of food allergies. Calcium is actively involved in the metabolism of iron interacts with vitamins A, C and D and phosphorus, magnesium. Natural source of calcium are animal products (dairy products, sardines, salmon, sprats eaten with bones) and plant products (nuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds). Absorption takes place in the small intestine (less in the colon), it has an effect on the level of lactose, insoluble fibre, organic acids, alkalinity (low pH). The best absorption have organic compounds (lactates, amino acid chelates etc.). Obstructing the absorption of calcium is caused by: phytic acid and oxalic acid as well as excess fat. Scientific studies have confirmed that the combination of calcium, magnesium, boron and vitamin D in dose 3 mg / 24h effectively prevent osteoporosis. Supplements on the market are both mono-preparation supplements (enriched with vitamin D3) and multi-component supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Calcium deficiency disorders manifested in the construction of the bones (osteoporosis) and iron metabolism. The symptoms are: rickets, cramps and muscle tremor, osteoporosis.
Excess resulting from an overdose of calcium supplements containing vitamin D3 for children and adults overdose of calcium (hypercalcemia). Symptoms of hypercalcemia are: lack of appetite, vomiting and constipation.
The dosage administered in various publications are inconsistent: 800 - 1000 mg / 24 h (100 - 500 mg / 24h)
Vitamin D belongs to fat soluble vitamins, occurs in three forms: calciferol (vitamin D1) ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), it is formed under the action of sunlight for at least 15 minutes per day. In the absence of sunlight it should be administered in the diet in the form of fish oil (Vitamin A + D3) and fish oils. It is responsible for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It is the building substance of bone tissue particularly necessary during pregnancy, childhood, and for athletes. It is a component of dietary supplements and nutrients among competetive athletes. Deficiency of vitamin D causes children growth inhibition, and rickets.
For adults - deficiency causes osteomalacia.
Excess of vitamin D causes headaches, alopecia, nausea, drowsiness, blurred vision, pain in the long bones, the deposition of calcium deposits.
Dosage: 400 IU units during the day.
Cholecalciferol, or vitamin D3, is an organic chemical that belongs to the family of D vitamins. It is naturally found in fatty fish, fish oil, egg yolks, milk and dairy products. It is also synthesized in the human body. It is formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol present in the keratinocytes of the spinous and the basal layers of the epidermis, and a pre-requisite for initiating this process is the action of 290-315 nm wavelength UVB radiation on the skin.
Cholecalciferol is a biologically inactive compound. In the body, it undergoes enzymatic hydroxylation – first in the liver, with the participation of 25-hydroxylase, when calcidiol is formed and secondly in the kidneys, where under the influence of 1-α-hydroxylase, calcidiol is converted into the final active form – calcitriol.
The most important role of vitamin D3 in the body is the regulation of calcium-phosphate metabolism, which directly affects normal skeletal mineralization. In addition, it is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, insulin secretion, as well as in some functions of the nervous, endocrine and immune systems.
Cholecalciferol is the most popular form of vitamin D used in dietary supplements. Studies show that supplementation with vitamin D in this form most effectively and rapidly raises the level of 25 (OH) D3 – a metabolite that is a marker of the level of vitamin D in the body.
Dosage: according to RDI standards for individual age groups.
Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a fat soluble. Due to its antioxidant action, it is a protection of other vitamins (e.g. Vitamins A). Protects the body against free radicals, strengthens the walls of blood vessels and its capacity, causing their dilation and dissolution of blood clots. With the reduction of coagulation, it is used as an antiatherogenic medicine, it allows for the proper course of pregnancy. In cooperation with selenium it slows the ageing process of cells, strengthening connective tissue. In the food it is present in whole-grain bread, sprout and grains, vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower), soya beans and sunflower seeds, vegetable fat and hen egg yolks. Also it is used in sports medicine in the form of nutrients and supplements.
Vitamin E deficiency reduces building of red blood cells, results in changes in muscle and disorders of pregnancies.
Dosage: for children, 0.5 mg / 1 kg of weight; for adults 10-30 mg per day.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) is soluble in the liquid. It participates in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. By reducing the amount of fat in the blood do not enable deposition of the body. It helps the absorption of magnesium and vitamin B12 (cobalamin). It works on the muscle antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory pain in the joints. It acts anti. It provides efficient operation of the brain. It increases energy increasing vigor of a man. The demand for vitamin B6 increases during pregnancy and breast-feeding infants. The natural product is: yeast, eggs, wheat germ, meat (liver), wheat bran, nuts, peanuts peanuts, soybeans. There is a hypothesis that can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
Deficiency of vitamin B6 causes abnormal metabolism of proteins, decrease in lymphocytes in the blood, causes a feeling of lethargy and fatigue intensifies.
Dosage: 1.5-2.5 mg daily (increased demand during pregnancy and lactation).
Salt (sodium chloride, or table salt), natural source of electrolytes (chlorine and potassium), regulating water and electrolyte and acid-base balance of the body, affecting the nervous system and blood pressure. Sodium is an essential element for the proper growth. The proper dose of salt prevents overheating of the body and solar stroke. It provides the proper functioning of muscles and nerves the body. Chlorine in combination with sodium, is involved in the digestive process and maintains acid-base balance in the body, as antitoxin removes toxic products of metabolism in the liver. Salt is a flavour component and preservative of many foods, nutritional supplements and mixtures of electrolytes, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: no specific standards of consumption, used so as to provide sufficient amount of electrolytes to the body (sodium and chloride).
What is methylcobalamin?
Methylcobalamin is a biologically active form of vitamin B12. It is one of the two forms of this vitamin that may be used as cofactors in various reactions. It differs from popular cyanocobalamin in the presence of methyl group instead of cyanide, thanks to which it releases the organism from the need of neutralizing this harmful factor.
The methyl group from methylcobalamin may be transferred to homocysteine, thanks to which it comes back in the form of methionine in order to be further converted to SAMe, which is the main donor of methyl groups in our organism. These methyl groups may be then used in the processes of creatine production, in neurotransmitter metabolism and as DNA methylation, thanks to which we achieve proper energy level, better well-being and generally better condition of the organism. B12 is a coenzyme for three enzymes: isomerase, methyltransferase and dehalogenase.
Apart from the influence on the nervous system, the supply of vitamin B12 is also very important for the proper synthesis of red cells as well as hemoglobin and anemia prevention.
Methylcobalamin in mono-supplements and complex vitamin preparations may be found in the offer of muscle-zone.pl.
Biotin (vitamin H, co-enzyme R) is in a group of B vitamins, due to the presence of sulphur compounds it is involved in the synthesis of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Also synthesized in the intestines. It enhances the production of hormones and regulates cholesterol levels. It reduces muscle pain. It prevents hair loss and graying of hair. It soothes the skin inflammations. No toxic effects. Often combined with other B group vitamins and vitamin A. The natural sources of biotin are: whole grain bread, yeast, eggs (yolk), milk, brown rice and cheese.
Daily demand: 100-300 mg per day
Iodine - more than two-thirds of iodine is stored in the thyroid gland and it is a component produced by it hormones - thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which are essential in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals and regulating the processes of growth, causing it usefulness in sports supplementation. It is also the ingredient of weight loss products. Regulates and controls body temperature. Natural source of acquisition of iodine are: bladderwrack, seafood, sea fish and onion and vegetables growing in soil containing this element and most of all iodized salt ..
Deficiency of iodine in the body cause hypothyroidism, and consequently overweight, mental slowing (cretinism inclusive). It is the cause of a goitre. Iodine deficiency can be caused by rhodanates and polyphenols (e.g. contained in cabbage and cauliflower), hemagglutinin found in legumes.
Excess iodine can result in inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis (this happens in a small percentage of cases).
Dosage: Treatment of iodine should be done under medical supervision. Daily demand for adults is 150 mcg. For pregnant women daily demand increases to 175 mcg.
Potassium and sodium regulate the body's water resources, ensuring normal heart rhythm. Maintaining the proper level of potassium provides the proper oxidation of the brain, lowers blood pressure, increases the permeability of cell membranes (as an antagonist of calcium). It is a base-forming element. It is widely used in sports diet before and after training in the form of supplements, nutrients, vitamin-mineral preparations and minerals, concentrates and ready, isotonic and hypertonic beverages. Natural sources of acquisition of potassium are: vegetable products (bananas, citrus fruits, melons, mint leaves, green vegetables, potatoes) and animal products (sea fish, meat). Potassium is present in the form of organic compounds: citric acids, and fumarates gluconates and inorganic (chlorides, sulfates, oxides and carbonates).
Potassium deficiency (hypokalemia): excessive tiredness, headaches and irritability, problems with sleeping, muscle cramps, constipation. Potassium levels may drop sharply in the event of a reduction in blood sugar levels, prolonged starvation, severe diarrhea. They can occur when too much of strong coffee is consumed, with alcohol abuse and when eating too much sweets.
The excess of potassium (hyperkalemia) is often the cause of depression, hypotension, tingling in the extremities.
Magnesium (element from the group of alkaline earth metals, atomic no. 12, a chemical symbol - Mg), one of the most important health microelements, participates in the synthesis process of the disintegration of high energy compounds and processes of transformation of hydrocarbons and fats. It affects the dilation of blood vessels and lower blood pressure, prevents hypercoagulable state. Shortages affect cardiac arrhythmias, malignant muscle cramps, insomnia and anxiety. It is a component of many dietary supplements and found in foods such as whole grain bread, legumes, buckwheat, rice, fish, meat, as well as chocolate, cocoa and nuts.
Dosage of 100 - 500 mg / day
Magnesium oxide – the most common form of this macroelement in supplementation that is essential to the human body. It belongs to a group of key intracellular cations and that is why its adequate levels are critical to maintaining the body’s homeostasis. An active lifestyle increases requirements for magnesium and that is why its supplementation is recommended strongly to athletes.
The most common symptoms associated with magnesium deficiencies are muscle cramps and eye twitches. This is connected with a significant impact of magnesium ions on the efficiency of the nervous system. Its adequate intake helps maintain neuromotor fitness. Deficiencies of this element are also said to aggravate symptoms of depression.
What is more, magnesium supplementation supports healthy cardiovascular function. It is suggested that its deficiencies promote the development of atherosclerotic lesions and hypertension. Too low dietary magnesium intake is associated with arrythmia and increased risk of heart attack.
Magnesium supplements are recommended to individuals doing hard mental work and learning. Its healthy levels enhance focus and may facilitate learning. It has a beneficial impact on sleep quality.
Zinc (chemical element from transition group 12) belongs to the trace elements, it helps maintain acid-base balance of the body, protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It provides bone metabolism and transport of oxygen. It protects the body against free radicals. Necessary for the proper operation of the senses of taste and smell. Positive impact on the process of insulin metabolism in the pancreas. It supports visual adaptation to the dark, has a significant influence on brain function. It is helpful in the treatment of infertility and mental illness.
Zinc deficiency leads to decreased immunity, and growth retardation. Zinc deficiency can occur in case of excessive consumption of simple sugars. In the case of hormonal therapy of women with irregular menstruation, the therapy should be associated with increased consumption of zinc. It can be found in food like: beans, eggs, carrots, beef and pork meat, milk, nuts, citrus fruits, seafood, rice, cottage cheese, lettuce.
Dosage: Daily 12-15 mg zinc. Exceeding the daily dose of 20 mg cause symptoms of poisoning of the body.
Zinc citrate - an organic form of zinc with very good assimilability and bioavailability. In one molecule of zinc citrate, zinc ions constitute 34% of the compound’s mass. Therefore, 100 mg of the substance will provide 34 mg of zinc ions. It should be borne in mind when buying dietary supplements, in which only the mass of the whole compound in a portion is provided. Supplementation with zinc in the form of citrate in some people may cause ailments of the digestive system - nausea, appetite drop or stomachache. Zinc in the form of zinc citrate should be best taken between meals, due to the fact that many food products may limit the absorption of this element, especially products rich in phytates, dairy products or fiber.
Exogenous methionine is an amino acid containing sulphur in its composition. It provides multi metabolism, with the indispensable help of vitamin B6. Participates in the synthesis of phospholipids (e.g. Lecithin), carnitine responsible for transport in the body of long-chain fatty acids, burned in the mitochondria cells (organelles in cells with a separate kernel), along with cystine forms cysteine. It is in the body antioxidant function. Natural source of acquisition of methionine are high-protein foods of animal origin (eggs, meat, fish), vegetable (sesame seeds, grain products). Available in all protein and carbohydrate protein and amino acid supplements such EAA and contain so-called all-day amino acids, supporting the liver preparations and cosmetics supporting the growth and condition of hair, skin and nails.
Selenium (element, chemical symbol Se, atomic no. 34, from chalcogenide, it is present in several allotropic forms). It is supplied the body with food in the form of seleno-amino acids (selenomethionine - gathering supplies, and selenocysteine – a component of glutathione peroxidase, deiodinase and seleno-proteins). Regulates the functioning of the thyroid gland. It affects the growth and development, including sexual development (by increasing production and sperm motility). It affects the flexibility of the tissue, removes some of the toxins from the body and destroys cancer cells and reduces the severity of menopause in women. Natural products containing selenium are seafood (sea fish, oysters, bladderwrack) and vegetable products (broccoli, onions, wheat germ, bran, tomatoes) and animal products (poultry, eggs). It is also included in the composition of vitamin-mineral and mineral supplements. Selenium supplementation is recommended as a dietary supplement of active people having diet poor in this element, and as a factor increasing the body's immunity.
Selenium deficiency increases the risk of developing cancer and heart disease. Symptoms of selenium deficiency are: cardiomyopathy, growth stoppage, disorders of detoxification processes which may lead to damage to the kidneys and liver.
An excess of selenium can lead to selenosis (the disease, the symptoms are: loss of hair, nail cracks, lesions).
daily demand of selenium for pregnant women 65 mcg; nursing mothers 75 mcg; men 7 mcg.
Sodium is an important component of the intracellular fluids, and is a regulator of acid-base balance. Along with potassium affects the proper of growth and provides the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. The source of acquisition is table salt (NaCl) and bladderwrack, shellfish, bacon, beef, and of plant beets and carrots. People on salt-free diet should avoid, among others, spicy sauces and smoked meats and sausages.
Sodium deficiency is very rare, at heaving sweating after a long effort (e.g. in the marathon).
Excess sodium increases blood pressure (especially for the elderly), edema and increased thirst. Exceeding the daily dose of 14g a day can cause poisoning.
Manganese, of which a natural source is chocolate, grain products with whole grain, nuts, legumes and dried cranberry, is a component of enzymes and their activator. It stimulates the properties and functionality of connective tissue and provides proper functioning of the brain. It affects the function of the pancreas, ensuring proper insulin metabolism and condition of the bone and joints. Magnesium deficiency contributes to serious disorders in synthesis of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin, reduction in insulin sensitivity of tissues, affects bone resorption. Manganese chelates are used in complexometry in chemical analysis and in medicine for the treatment of severe poisoning (antitoxin) by heavy metals, in sports supplementation, manganese impact on the functioning of the locomotor system is used. It is a component of the so-called regenerators of joints and a vitamin-mineralizing and mineralizing supplements.
Chromium (chemical element from transition group of the chromium, chemically active) is actively involved in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It comes in the easily assimilable organic form and inorganic. Along with insulin, as a component of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), is used in insulin-dependent diabetes treatment, insulin involved in the metabolism of glucose in t proteins transport. Activator of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Available in animal origin products (liver, veal, chicken, turkey meat, oysters) and plant-origin (bananas, broccoli, cereal, wheat germ, spinach). Supplements containing chromium are recommended for fat loss (also thermogenic), and improving the functioning of the body. The sports supplementation used chromium in the form of mono-preparations or in the form of vitamin-mineral minerals supplements.
Chromium deficiency results in impaired glucose, reducing the insulin sensitivity. It causes a decrease in immunity and endurance of the body. It may be a cause of coronary heart disease. Sometimes it causes neurological disorders.
Dosage: A varied diet prevents from the deficiency of chromium in the body.
Dosage: The recommended dose of 50-150 mg per day.
Molybdenum (the element of the chromium groups, atomic no. 42, a chemical symbol Mo) - a trace element involved in the metabolic conversion of carbohydrates and fats and increases the absorption of iron. It is used to treat anaemia. Well affects the mood.. It is a component of many dietary supplements and in foods such as lettuce, cabbage and other leafy green vegetables, whole grains (corn, sunflower, etc.).
Inositol is an organic compound from the group of B vitamins soluble in fluids, present in the natural or synthetic form, synthesized in plants, such as brewer's yeast, beans, grapefruit, cabbage, sprout of wheat, melons and animal (liver). Along with choline is included in the lecithin. It affects the cell nutrition of the central nervous system (brain) by reducing the level of LDL (bad cholesterol), this makes it applicable in treatment of Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. It has a calming effect. There has been a beneficial effect of inositol on the skin and hair reported.
Mixed tocopherols - a method of complementing vitamin E, commonly used in supplementation, encompassing tocopherols and tocotrienols. The compounds from the group of vitamin E belong to the substances soluble in fats, therefore they should be taken with fats.
The main activity of vitamin E in the organism is its activity as antioxidant. It demonstrates the ability to neutralize free radicals and consequently to reduce oxidative stress. In this way, it positively influences the state of tissues of the organism. Supplementation with antioxidants is indicated as an effective method of delaying the signs of aging and it may demonstrate anticancer properties. Apart from this, supplementation with vitamin E, thanks to its antioxidant properties, positively influences the absorption of some other biologically active compounds.
Supplementation with vitamin E also demonstrates cardioprotective properties. Its proper concentration in blood prevents the pathological breakdown of erythrocytes, increases endurance of blood vessel walls and decreases the risk of developing atherosclerosis.
For maximal absorption and effectiveness, vitamin E should not be used with vitamin K and supplements containing iron.
Lutein, a derivative of alpha-carotene is a natural plant dye, colouring in yellow, is also present in the yolk of egg. In the body, located primarily in the retina of the human eye (together with Zeaxanthin), it acts as a natural filter for the eye, absorbing ultraviolet radiation. It is a powerful antioxidant, neutralizing free radicals. Available in the form of mono-preparation supplements and multi-compound supplements with antioxidant, protecting the eyes, action, as well as multivitamins, creatine stacks and no-boosters.
Zeaxanthin is a natural plant dye, a compound classified as carotenoids found in foods of plant origin, essential for the proper functioning of vision. Located on the retina, the so-called. yellow macula, it is responsible for visual acuity. Together with lutein (belonging to the carotenoid) it is an antioxidant, also it has the ability to absorb energy of blue light protecting eyes from organ damage.
Zeaxanthin is a component of formulations (often in combination with other carotenoids) enhancing the functioning of the organs of sight.
Dosage: Up to 2 mg per day.
Apigenin is an organic chemical compound belonging to flavones, isolated for the first time in 1914 from chamomile herb. It is commonly found in grapefruits, oranges, onions, parsley and in many popular spices, such as oregano, thyme, basil, coriander, and cloves.
Apigenin has a number of pro-health properties – it has been proven to show anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and neuroprotective effects. It also seems to have the ability to stimulate neurogenesis in the adult brain.
Apigenin is used not only for pro-health purposes. It is also a valued element of sports supplementation. Researchers have shown that it acts as an inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CD38. Inhibition of their activity translates into an increase in the level of NAD + in the body, which helps to maintain normal body mass, positively affects the physical condition and slows down the aging process of the body. In addition, apigenin may inhibit the expression of the aromatase enzyme, thus contributing to an increase in testosterone levels.
Supplements most often contain Apigenin isolated from grapefruit; chamomile extracts, standardized for the content of apigenin (usually 1%), are less common. It is also available in the form of a mono-preparation and sometimes it can be found in the composition of preparations for athletes.
Dosage: no standards of unit consumption.
In case of apigenin derived from grapefruit, a dose of 50 mg per day is usually used, and in case of chamomile flower extracts (standardized to 1% of apigenin), the recommended dose is about 500 mg.
Boron - an element of boron group, symbol B, atomic number (Z) - 5, belongs to a group of micronutrients. The organism, it is responsible for the synthesis of nucleic acids and prevents the release of excess calcium from the bones. Is an activator of enzymes in metabolism. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits (grapefruit, bitter orange), legumes, grapes, malt beer. The supplementation is rarely used, mostly in vitamin and a vitamin-mineralizing supplements.
Dosage: the lack of standards for daily consumption. Excess of boron is toxic for the organism.
Lycopene, an organic compound, carotenoid form xanthophylls group, a natural dye of plant origin, colouring to bright red, occurring i.e. in tomatoes and carrots. It has the strongest antioxidant potential (relatively to the singlet oxygen) from the carotenes. It is not participating, in contrast to other carotenes, in the transformation of vitamin A. It reduces the risk of lung cancer, atherosclerosis and other diseases of the circulatory system, it is a component of nutrient, vitaminizing, vitamin-mineralizing and functional supplements, (often in combination with beta-carotene, lutein) supporting reduction of body fat, improving skin complexion, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: 1 - 3 g / 24h