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Apollo’s Hegemony Diamond Multivitamin is a multi-component complex of vitamins and minerals necessary for the proper functioning of the body. This preparation provides them in a highly absorbable form, thus enabling efficient supplies of nutrients supporting metabolism, protection against free radicals and body’s immunity.
Optimization of metabolic processes
This supplement allows for supplying all necessary vitamins and minerals and helps to replenish their possible deficiencies. Vitamins and minerals are compounds that can activate key enzymes for many metabolic processes. Their appropriate level allows for the efficient occurrence of reactions with proteins, amino acids, fats, carbohydrates or nucleic acids. This can be achieved by the proper use of the substances supplied with food, growth, and supplying the body with energy.
Antioxidant support for the body
The composition of the preparation also includes numerous ingredients with antioxidant potential, i.e. selenium, vitamins C and E or resveratrol. They are of key importance for protecting the body against the harmful effects of free oxygen radicals, which contribute to DNA and protein damage, often causing many diseases. Antioxidants, therefore, protect the body from premature aging – they delay, e.g. the emergence of wrinkles.
Strengthening of the immunity and cognitive functions
Supplying the right amount of vitamins and micronutrients is important for the proper functioning of the immune system and protection against infections. This may be facilitated by Vitamin C, which helps to prevent colds, especially in the autumn and winter season.
What's more, ingredients such as choline bitartrate, alpha-GPC or para-aminobenzoic acid improve the functioning of the nervous system and have a beneficial effect on cognitive functions and well-being.
To sum up, Apollo’s Hegemony Diamond Multivitamin is comprehensive support for the body that will help to maintain a better condition of the immune and nervous systems, as well as well-being and protect against common vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
This supplement is recommended primarily to people who feel weak, have problems with concentration and poor immunity. Replenishing the most important nutrients often helps to improve the condition of the body and boost energy.
For better absorption, the supplement is recommended to be taken during or after a meal.
Apollo’s Hegemony is a manufacturer of dietary supplements whose composition is based on the latest scientific research and experience. The company is constantly expanding its range of products and taking care that they are of top quality.
It offers formulations which have multiple effects on the body and those with more targeted effects – e.g. boosting alertness and focus, increasing the tolerance to stress, promoting peaceful sleep and maintaining the health of the liver and adrenal glands.
Dietary supplements by Apollo’s Hegemony are effective owing to carefully selected composition which comprises the most potent forms and their precise doses. What is more, herbal supplements contain standardised extracts.
All products of this brand comply with good manufacturing practices (GMP) and their ingredients are vegan and vegetarian friendly.
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|per portion (4 capsules)||amount||%DV|
|Vitamin A (as beta-carotene)||2500 IU||94%|
|Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid)||240mg||300%|
|Vitamin D (as cholecalciferol)||3000 IU||1500%|
|Vitamin E (as d-alpha tocopheryl acetate)||40IU||225%|
|Vitamin K (as K2, menaquinone-7)||80mcg||94%|
|Vitamin B1 (as thiamine)||50mg||4545%|
|Niacin (as nicotinamide 20mg, niacin 20mg)||40mg||250%|
|Vitamin B6 (as P5P)||25mg||1786%|
|Vitamin B12 (as Methylcobalamin)||800mcg||32000%|
|Pantothenic acid (as Calcium Pantothenate)||100mg||1667%|
|Calcium (from calcium pantothenate)||12mg||2%|
|Iodine (as potassium iodine)||150mcg||100%|
|Magnesium (from 850mg magnesium malate)||100mg||27%|
|Zinc (from 150mg zinc picolinate)||30mg||300%|
|Selenium (as l-selenomethionine)||200mcg||364%|
|Copper (from Copper chelate)||1,5mg||150%|
|Manganese (from manganese gluconate)||4mg||200%|
|Chromium (as Chromium picolinate)||400mcg||1000%|
|Molybdenum (as molybdenum chelate)||75mcg||150%|
|Boron (from Boron citrate)||3mg||*|
|Antioxidants & Inflammation Complex|
|Grape Seed Extract OPC 95%||25mg||*|
|Olive Leaf Extract 40%||25mg||*|
|Ginger Extract 5% gingerols||25mg||*|
Capsule Shell (hypromellose), Rice flour.
The product has not been tested for substances banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).
Vitamin A (retinol) is present in foods of animal origin (fish of the sea, fish, eels, liver, pork and beef, eggs, butter). In the plant products it is present as provitamin A (b-carotene), a powerful antioxidant. The food products containing pro-vitamin A are fruits in yellow and red, including apricots, tomatoes. Necessary in process of building and assimilation of proteins, affects the normal growth of bones and helps the treatment of eye diseases.Iinhibits the excessive action of the thyroid hormone - thyroxine, which simultaneously prevents the deposition of excess vitamin A. Necessary in the sports diet of in the form of food, such as dietary supplements and nutritional supplements.
Vitamin A deficiency causes growth inhibition, flaking and dryness of the skin, impaired night vision (i.e. Night blindness).
Excess of vitamin A leads to calcification of the bones and some soft tissues, and abnormalities in the functioning of glomerulonephritis
Dosage: Specified in IU and it is 5000 IU per day.
Beta-carotene (provitamin A) is a fat-soluble form of vitamin A (retinol). It is a necessary vitamin for the development and acquisition of proteins, necessary to rebuild a bone structure. Irreplaceable in the treatment of eye diseases (prevents decrease of vision and so called night blindness). It strengthens the immune system. It is a strong oxidant. In its natural form it can be found found only in plants (unlike retinol, which is present in foods of animal origin) such as chard, squash, kale, carrots, apricots, tomatoes). Available in the form of supplements and nutrients as an essential component of the sports diet.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) it is a vitamin soluble in body fluids, can be taken from foods (fruits and vegetables), or as drug derived synthetically. The largest of its resources can be found in broccoli, Brussels sprout, kale, black currant fruit and hawthorn, citrus fruits, tomatoes, Savoy cabbage, potatoes. In fact, intake of vitamin C of the food products does not limit the absorbed quantity. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a potent antioxidant, it is an antitoxic, increasing the immune system due to the elimination of risk of bacterial contamination. Vitamin C prevents rupture of blood vessels, affects the blood cholesterol level. It substantially increases the absorption of iron. Inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Lowers stress levels.
Vitamin C deficiency causes abnormal development of connective tissue, cracking capillaries, abnormal calcification of bone tissue, impaired absorption of iron, scorbutus. With the lack of vitamin C, all kinds of injuries do not heal up properly. Vitamin C deficiency can be caused by smoking; each cigarette is destroying up to 100 mg of vitamin C.
Dosage: The demand is 60-80 mg daily. It does not limit the ability to consume higher doses. Some side effects may occur only with longer taking of synthetic vitamin C.
Ascorbic acid – vitamin C. Its biologically active form is the L-isomer, which negatively rotates the polarised light, so that it is a dextroisomer (laevorotatory vitamin C does not exist). It is a strong antioxidant; it reduces the amounts of free radicals, which reduces oxidative stress, a factor leading to cell apoptosis, which is why it is indicated to be a cause for premature ageing.
It supports the immune system functions and increases body system immunity. It is an essential element of the collagen synthesis path, which is why it positively affects the condition of connective tissue. Hence, it promotes also wound healing and increases the durability of capillary vessel. It is involved in transformations of tyrosine and carnitine as well as of some nutrients, so that it affects metabolism. It can also have an impact on the nervous system functions, as it reduces mental fatigue.
Higher supply of vitamin C is especially recommended in the periods of more intensive body system burden, after infections and in order to accelerate regeneration. The indications for increased supply of the vitamin are also hard physical work or intensive trainings.
Vitamin D belongs to fat soluble vitamins, occurs in three forms: calciferol (vitamin D1) ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), it is formed under the action of sunlight for at least 15 minutes per day. In the absence of sunlight it should be administered in the diet in the form of fish oil (Vitamin A + D3) and fish oils. It is responsible for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It is the building substance of bone tissue particularly necessary during pregnancy, childhood, and for athletes. It is a component of dietary supplements and nutrients among competetive athletes. Deficiency of vitamin D causes children growth inhibition, and rickets.
For adults - deficiency causes osteomalacia.
Excess of vitamin D causes headaches, alopecia, nausea, drowsiness, blurred vision, pain in the long bones, the deposition of calcium deposits.
Dosage: 400 IU units during the day.
Cholecalciferol, or vitamin D3, is an organic chemical that belongs to the family of D vitamins. It is naturally found in fatty fish, fish oil, egg yolks, milk and dairy products. It is also synthesized in the human body. It is formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol present in the keratinocytes of the spinous and the basal layers of the epidermis, and a pre-requisite for initiating this process is the action of 290-315 nm wavelength UVB radiation on the skin.
Cholecalciferol is a biologically inactive compound. In the body, it undergoes enzymatic hydroxylation – first in the liver, with the participation of 25-hydroxylase, when calcidiol is formed and secondly in the kidneys, where under the influence of 1-α-hydroxylase, calcidiol is converted into the final active form – calcitriol.
The most important role of vitamin D3 in the body is the regulation of calcium-phosphate metabolism, which directly affects normal skeletal mineralization. In addition, it is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, insulin secretion, as well as in some functions of the nervous, endocrine and immune systems.
Cholecalciferol is the most popular form of vitamin D used in dietary supplements. Studies show that supplementation with vitamin D in this form most effectively and rapidly raises the level of 25 (OH) D3 – a metabolite that is a marker of the level of vitamin D in the body.
Dosage: according to RDI standards for individual age groups.
Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a fat soluble. Due to its antioxidant action, it is a protection of other vitamins (e.g. Vitamins A). Protects the body against free radicals, strengthens the walls of blood vessels and its capacity, causing their dilation and dissolution of blood clots. With the reduction of coagulation, it is used as an antiatherogenic medicine, it allows for the proper course of pregnancy. In cooperation with selenium it slows the ageing process of cells, strengthening connective tissue. In the food it is present in whole-grain bread, sprout and grains, vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower), soya beans and sunflower seeds, vegetable fat and hen egg yolks. Also it is used in sports medicine in the form of nutrients and supplements.
Vitamin E deficiency reduces building of red blood cells, results in changes in muscle and disorders of pregnancies.
Dosage: for children, 0.5 mg / 1 kg of weight; for adults 10-30 mg per day.
Vitamin K exists in the triad of vitamins: menaquinone (vitamin. K1), menadione (vitamin. K2) and menadione (vitamin. K3), soluble in fat. It is produced by bacteria in the human colon. Natural sources of vitamin. K are: eggs, kale, cauliflower, cabbage, meat, milk, lettuce, spinach, fish oil and liver. The synthetic form is administered to newborns, to reduce the sterility of the gastrointestinal tract. Used as a antihaemorrhagic, due to its participation in the process of prothrombin. Increases antibacterial and antifungal immunity. Prevents abundant bleeding during menstruation of women.
Vitamin K deficiency causes external bleeding and ecchymosis on skin, decreased prothrombin synthesis in the liver (especially while taking antibiotics and sulfanilamide).
What is menaquinone-7?
Menaquinone-7 is a term used for long-chain form of vitamin K2, having seven isoprene residues in the side chain. Contrary to another popular form MK-4, it is not synthesized in tissues, however, it may be produced in the intestines by means of the conversion from vitamin K1 by intestinal bacteria.
It exhibits especially positive influence on the health of the circulatory system, especially by lowering the risk of atherosclerosis and heart attacks. It owes this effect mainly to osteocalcin, activated by vitamin K2. This hormone is responsible among others for the transport of calcium to bones, which counteracts its storage in soft tissues, decreasing at the same time the probability of blood vessel calcification and the creation of atherosclerotic plaques. K2 MK-7 also contributes to protecting the nervous system, securing neurons from excitotoxicity induced by excessive activity of glutamate and reducing the consequences of excessively low level of glutathione.
Vitamin K2 in the form of menaquinone-7 is a very popular additive to supplements with vitamin D3, due to the synergy of effects and reducing potential negative effects of applying higher doses of cholecalciferol.
Menaquinone-7 may be found both in monopreparations and complex supplements in the offer of muscle-zone.pl.
Vitamin B1 (thiamin, vitamin B) improves mental alertness and strengthens the nervous system ensuring the proper functioning of the brain. It improves cardiac and muscular system. It is suportive in the treatment of shingles. Involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Natural source of vitamin B1 are brown bread, yeast, eggs, raw vegetables, meat, milk, legumes, cheese.
Vitamin B1 deficiency hinders the processes of decomposition of sugars (catabolism), causes a loss of appetite and disorders in the functioning of the digestive tract, can cause polyneuritis and disease beriberi.
Dosage: Recommended daily intake is 1-2 mg.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is soluble in liquids, is involved in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Required for growth of the organism. Takes part in the production of erythrocytes (red blood cells). It is located in natural foods, such as yeast, meat (especially liver, kidney, heart), milk, fish and green leafy vegetables.
A deficiency of vitamin B2 inhibits the growth, diseases of the mouth, loss and greasy hair, seborrhea and stratification of nails. Increases skin roughness and susceptibility to acne and oily skin.
Dosage: 1-2 mg per day.
Vitamin B3 (vitamin PP, niacin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide) is niacinamide niacin. It is used in interaction with vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in the synthesis of hormones during lactation. It provides proper functioning of the brain and nervous system. It is helpful in inflammatory conditions of the skin. Required for synthesis of sex hormone, estrogen, testosterone, cortisone, and insulin. It does not lose its properties in the manufacturing and storage. The source of acquiring vitamins PP are both products of animal origin (the lean meat, eggs, fish) and vegetable origin (dates, figs, hazelnuts, plums).
Dosage: 2-12 mg / day for children, 14 mg / day for women, 16 mg / day for men and 17-18 mg / day for pregnant or nursing women.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) is soluble in the liquid. It participates in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. By reducing the amount of fat in the blood do not enable deposition of the body. It helps the absorption of magnesium and vitamin B12 (cobalamin). It works on the muscle antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory pain in the joints. It acts anti. It provides efficient operation of the brain. It increases energy increasing vigor of a man. The demand for vitamin B6 increases during pregnancy and breast-feeding infants. The natural product is: yeast, eggs, wheat germ, meat (liver), wheat bran, nuts, peanuts peanuts, soybeans. There is a hypothesis that can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
Deficiency of vitamin B6 causes abnormal metabolism of proteins, decrease in lymphocytes in the blood, causes a feeling of lethargy and fatigue intensifies.
Dosage: 1.5-2.5 mg daily (increased demand during pregnancy and lactation).
Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (P-5-P) - the form of vitamin B6, called coenzymatic, considered the best assimilable form of this vitamin by the human organism. This is related to direct metabolic activity of pyridoxal-5-phosphate in the human organism. It does not have to be subjected to biochemical transformations in the organism in order to be able to enter metabolic pathways as a biologically active ingredient.
Vitamin B6 is an incredibly important factor regulating the work of many processes in the organism due to its role in the organism as a coenzyme, essential for the activation of many important enzymes. Thanks to this, it regulates metabolism at many levels and its proper supply is conducive to maintaining homeostasis of the organism.
Another aspect of effectiveness of vitamin B6 is its influence on the normalization of emotional states. It is conducive to relaxation, facilitates falling asleep and falling in a deep, the most valuable sleep. Special influence on P5P on the psyche is proven in women before menstruation, as it demonstrates considerable ability to reduce the symptoms of the pre-menstrual syndrome.
Supplementation with vitamin B6 also demonstrates positive influence on the functions of the nervous system. It is conducive to the nourishment of neuronal tissues and optimizes the secretion of neurotransmitters, thanks to which it promotes nervous transmission and demonstrates neuroprotective properties. It was proven that vitamin B6 may decrease the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.
Some sources also suggest the ability of pyridoxal 5-phosphate to reduce the risk of cancer. This effectiveness is noted especially in relation to breast cancer.
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, cyanocobalamin) is a vitamin soluble in liquids. Participates in the production of red blood cells and is essential in the absorption of iron by the body. It calming effect, a positive effect on concentration and memory. Intensifies its action in cooperation with folic acid (vitamin M). Usually occurs in animal products, fish and dairy products. It contains trace elements.
Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to pernicious anaemia, general and immunity weakness, inhibiting of growth and damage to the myelin sheath of nerves.
What is methylcobalamin?
Methylcobalamin is a biologically active form of vitamin B12. It is one of the two forms of this vitamin that may be used as cofactors in various reactions. It differs from popular cyanocobalamin in the presence of methyl group instead of cyanide, thanks to which it releases the organism from the need of neutralizing this harmful factor.
The methyl group from methylcobalamin may be transferred to homocysteine, thanks to which it comes back in the form of methionine in order to be further converted to SAMe, which is the main donor of methyl groups in our organism. These methyl groups may be then used in the processes of creatine production, in neurotransmitter metabolism and as DNA methylation, thanks to which we achieve proper energy level, better well-being and generally better condition of the organism. B12 is a coenzyme for three enzymes: isomerase, methyltransferase and dehalogenase.
Apart from the influence on the nervous system, the supply of vitamin B12 is also very important for the proper synthesis of red cells as well as hemoglobin and anemia prevention.
Methylcobalamin in mono-supplements and complex vitamin preparations may be found in the offer of muscle-zone.pl.
Biotin (vitamin H, co-enzyme R) is in a group of B vitamins, due to the presence of sulphur compounds it is involved in the synthesis of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Also synthesized in the intestines. It enhances the production of hormones and regulates cholesterol levels. It reduces muscle pain. It prevents hair loss and graying of hair. It soothes the skin inflammations. No toxic effects. Often combined with other B group vitamins and vitamin A. The natural sources of biotin are: whole grain bread, yeast, eggs (yolk), milk, brown rice and cheese.
Daily demand: 100-300 mg per day
Vitamin B5 (calcium pantothenate, pantothenic acid, pantotenol) is part of a complex of B vitamins affects the development of the central nervous system, is the building substance of cells. In the body synthesized by the intestinal bacteria. It occurs in animal products (meat, kidneys, liver) and plants (wheat germ, wheat bran, nuts, grains, green vegetables). Prevents fatigue and excessive stress, accelerates the healing of cuts and wounds, acts as a stimulant for the side effects of the use of antibiotics. Deficiency causes skin changes, and difficulty in blood clotting.
Calcium (element chem. symbol Ca, atomic no. 20, the group of alkaline earth metals) is the basic building substance of bones and teeth, in which stored is 99% of the element, in the form of hydroxylapatite. When building bones and teeth, phosphorus is very important in the right proportion. It is a base-forming element and activator of many enzymes (ATPase) necessary to release the energy of ATP. It has a significant effect on blood clotting and regulates blood pressure and neuromuscular conductivity. Thanks to the reduced permeability of cell membranes, it soothes the symptoms of food allergies. Calcium is actively involved in the metabolism of iron interacts with vitamins A, C and D and phosphorus, magnesium. Natural source of calcium are animal products (dairy products, sardines, salmon, sprats eaten with bones) and plant products (nuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds). Absorption takes place in the small intestine (less in the colon), it has an effect on the level of lactose, insoluble fibre, organic acids, alkalinity (low pH). The best absorption have organic compounds (lactates, amino acid chelates etc.). Obstructing the absorption of calcium is caused by: phytic acid and oxalic acid as well as excess fat. Scientific studies have confirmed that the combination of calcium, magnesium, boron and vitamin D in dose 3 mg / 24h effectively prevent osteoporosis. Supplements on the market are both mono-preparation supplements (enriched with vitamin D3) and multi-component supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Calcium deficiency disorders manifested in the construction of the bones (osteoporosis) and iron metabolism. The symptoms are: rickets, cramps and muscle tremor, osteoporosis.
Excess resulting from an overdose of calcium supplements containing vitamin D3 for children and adults overdose of calcium (hypercalcemia). Symptoms of hypercalcemia are: lack of appetite, vomiting and constipation.
The dosage administered in various publications are inconsistent: 800 - 1000 mg / 24 h (100 - 500 mg / 24h)
Iodine - more than two-thirds of iodine is stored in the thyroid gland and it is a component produced by it hormones - thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which are essential in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals and regulating the processes of growth, causing it usefulness in sports supplementation. It is also the ingredient of weight loss products. Regulates and controls body temperature. Natural source of acquisition of iodine are: bladderwrack, seafood, sea fish and onion and vegetables growing in soil containing this element and most of all iodized salt ..
Deficiency of iodine in the body cause hypothyroidism, and consequently overweight, mental slowing (cretinism inclusive). It is the cause of a goitre. Iodine deficiency can be caused by rhodanates and polyphenols (e.g. contained in cabbage and cauliflower), hemagglutinin found in legumes.
Excess iodine can result in inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis (this happens in a small percentage of cases).
Dosage: Treatment of iodine should be done under medical supervision. Daily demand for adults is 150 mcg. For pregnant women daily demand increases to 175 mcg.
Potassium and sodium regulate the body's water resources, ensuring normal heart rhythm. Maintaining the proper level of potassium provides the proper oxidation of the brain, lowers blood pressure, increases the permeability of cell membranes (as an antagonist of calcium). It is a base-forming element. It is widely used in sports diet before and after training in the form of supplements, nutrients, vitamin-mineral preparations and minerals, concentrates and ready, isotonic and hypertonic beverages. Natural sources of acquisition of potassium are: vegetable products (bananas, citrus fruits, melons, mint leaves, green vegetables, potatoes) and animal products (sea fish, meat). Potassium is present in the form of organic compounds: citric acids, and fumarates gluconates and inorganic (chlorides, sulfates, oxides and carbonates).
Potassium deficiency (hypokalemia): excessive tiredness, headaches and irritability, problems with sleeping, muscle cramps, constipation. Potassium levels may drop sharply in the event of a reduction in blood sugar levels, prolonged starvation, severe diarrhea. They can occur when too much of strong coffee is consumed, with alcohol abuse and when eating too much sweets.
The excess of potassium (hyperkalemia) is often the cause of depression, hypotension, tingling in the extremities.
Magnesium (element from the group of alkaline earth metals, atomic no. 12, a chemical symbol - Mg), one of the most important health microelements, participates in the synthesis process of the disintegration of high energy compounds and processes of transformation of hydrocarbons and fats. It affects the dilation of blood vessels and lower blood pressure, prevents hypercoagulable state. Shortages affect cardiac arrhythmias, malignant muscle cramps, insomnia and anxiety. It is a component of many dietary supplements and found in foods such as whole grain bread, legumes, buckwheat, rice, fish, meat, as well as chocolate, cocoa and nuts.
Dosage of 100 - 500 mg / day
Magnesium malate - a form of magnesium which is well-absorbed in the human organism, from which we may derive additional benefits thanks to the presence of malic acid residue. It is engaged in the transformations aiming at energy extraction in the organism, thanks to which supplementation with malate may positively influence energy metabolism.
Another advantage of magnesium malate distinguishing this form among other numerous forms of this element is its ability to bind and neutralize toxic heavy metals. It may be an antidote for their aggregation in the organism, demonstrating neuroprotective effect.
Taking care of the proper magnesium supply is important due to the health of the cardiovascular system. Its insufficient amounts in diet may cause the increase of pressure and disorders of the rhythm of the heart work. Researchers indicate the correlation between magnesium deficiencies and increased risk of heart attack. Because of the health of the circulatory system, the positive influence of magnesium on lipid profile is also important.
Moreover, magnesium is an important element to maintain optimal sugar metabolism. Benefits from its supplementation will be also noticed by people dealing with diabetes, as it was proven that it may limit the development of diabetic polyneuropathy.
Proper supply of magnesium is important also due to the endurance of bone tissue in the organism. Magnesium belongs to the group of elements that build and strengthen the structure of bones.
When talking about magnesium activity, we must not forget about its positive influence on the functions of the nervous system. It is conducive to proper nervous transmission and neuromotor coordination.
Zinc (chemical element from transition group 12) belongs to the trace elements, it helps maintain acid-base balance of the body, protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It provides bone metabolism and transport of oxygen. It protects the body against free radicals. Necessary for the proper operation of the senses of taste and smell. Positive impact on the process of insulin metabolism in the pancreas. It supports visual adaptation to the dark, has a significant influence on brain function. It is helpful in the treatment of infertility and mental illness.
Zinc deficiency leads to decreased immunity, and growth retardation. Zinc deficiency can occur in case of excessive consumption of simple sugars. In the case of hormonal therapy of women with irregular menstruation, the therapy should be associated with increased consumption of zinc. It can be found in food like: beans, eggs, carrots, beef and pork meat, milk, nuts, citrus fruits, seafood, rice, cottage cheese, lettuce.
Dosage: Daily 12-15 mg zinc. Exceeding the daily dose of 20 mg cause symptoms of poisoning of the body.
Zinc picolinate – an organic zinc salt, its highly available form of proven ability to increase the element level in the body system. Zinc belongs to the microelements essential for the human body system and the demand results mainly from the fact that it is present in active centres of many enzymes conducting the reactions responsible for homeostasis.
It forms also protein domains binding DNA, called also zinc fingers, which determines the activity of many regulatory proteins. The proper supply of zinc ensures smooth functioning of the immune system. It affects also metabolism, both by modifications of digestive enzymes activity and influence on insulin secretion in beta pancreatic cells.
Zinc protects also the cells from the action of free radicals. The proper supply of the element can also increase testosterone synthesis, as it reduces the activity of aromatase. In men, zinc prevents prostate cancer and in women – regulates menstruation.
Selenium (element, chemical symbol Se, atomic no. 34, from chalcogenide, it is present in several allotropic forms). It is supplied the body with food in the form of seleno-amino acids (selenomethionine - gathering supplies, and selenocysteine – a component of glutathione peroxidase, deiodinase and seleno-proteins). Regulates the functioning of the thyroid gland. It affects the growth and development, including sexual development (by increasing production and sperm motility). It affects the flexibility of the tissue, removes some of the toxins from the body and destroys cancer cells and reduces the severity of menopause in women. Natural products containing selenium are seafood (sea fish, oysters, bladderwrack) and vegetable products (broccoli, onions, wheat germ, bran, tomatoes) and animal products (poultry, eggs). It is also included in the composition of vitamin-mineral and mineral supplements. Selenium supplementation is recommended as a dietary supplement of active people having diet poor in this element, and as a factor increasing the body's immunity.
Selenium deficiency increases the risk of developing cancer and heart disease. Symptoms of selenium deficiency are: cardiomyopathy, growth stoppage, disorders of detoxification processes which may lead to damage to the kidneys and liver.
An excess of selenium can lead to selenosis (the disease, the symptoms are: loss of hair, nail cracks, lesions).
daily demand of selenium for pregnant women 65 mcg; nursing mothers 75 mcg; men 7 mcg.
L-selenomethionine is a selenoamino acid and organic form of selenium. It is a combination of selenium with methionine (about 40% of selenium and 60% of the amino acid methionine per molecule) in which a sulphur molecule is replaced by selenium.
This form is absorbed very effectively via the digestive tract. It is believed that the bioavailability of selenium from L-selenomethionine is even 1.5-2 times greater than its non-organic forms. It is estimated that its bioavailability may exceed 90%. Furthermore, the half-life of L-selenomethionine is much longer than in non-organic forms – it is 252 days. This means that the absorbed selenium is accumulated for a long time in the body.
Selenium is a component of many key biochemical pathways. It helps protect the body from oxidative stress, prevents atherosclerosis, supports the immune system and brain function and optimises thyroid function. It has been demonstrated that selenium as L-selenomethionine may, among others, reduce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in female patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis..
As a dietary supplement, L-selenomethione is most often used to support thyroid, cardiac and immune function and stabilise cholesterol levels.
Copper - trace mineral that facilitates the introduction of iron into hemoglobin, allowing the correct functioning of antioxidant processes. It is an important component of enzymes that affect the processes of aerobic metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and in the formation of collagen. With proper diet, do not use supplements containing copper, as an overdose can cause insomnia, hair loss. It occurs in foods such as legumes, offal, plums, seafood. Copper compounds must be used in a responsible way, because many of them have toxic properties.
Dosing: A sufficient amount of copper provides proper diet.
Manganese, of which a natural source is chocolate, grain products with whole grain, nuts, legumes and dried cranberry, is a component of enzymes and their activator. It stimulates the properties and functionality of connective tissue and provides proper functioning of the brain. It affects the function of the pancreas, ensuring proper insulin metabolism and condition of the bone and joints. Magnesium deficiency contributes to serious disorders in synthesis of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin, reduction in insulin sensitivity of tissues, affects bone resorption. Manganese chelates are used in complexometry in chemical analysis and in medicine for the treatment of severe poisoning (antitoxin) by heavy metals, in sports supplementation, manganese impact on the functioning of the locomotor system is used. It is a component of the so-called regenerators of joints and a vitamin-mineralizing and mineralizing supplements.
Chromium (chemical element from transition group of the chromium, chemically active) is actively involved in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It comes in the easily assimilable organic form and inorganic. Along with insulin, as a component of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), is used in insulin-dependent diabetes treatment, insulin involved in the metabolism of glucose in t proteins transport. Activator of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Available in animal origin products (liver, veal, chicken, turkey meat, oysters) and plant-origin (bananas, broccoli, cereal, wheat germ, spinach). Supplements containing chromium are recommended for fat loss (also thermogenic), and improving the functioning of the body. The sports supplementation used chromium in the form of mono-preparations or in the form of vitamin-mineral minerals supplements.
Chromium deficiency results in impaired glucose, reducing the insulin sensitivity. It causes a decrease in immunity and endurance of the body. It may be a cause of coronary heart disease. Sometimes it causes neurological disorders.
Dosage: A varied diet prevents from the deficiency of chromium in the body.
Dosage: The recommended dose of 50-150 mg per day.
Chromium Picolinate is a complex containing trivalent chromium and picolinic acid, for greater assimilation, it has chelating and anti-inflammatory properties. Trivalent chromium is a part of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), supporting the anabolic effect of insulin in the creatine transport into the muscle cells. Chromium is used to treat type 1 diabetes melitus, and with insulin it is involved in the metabolism of glucose it transport of protein. It is an activator of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Chromium picolinate is used by people active beyond sports and in sports supplementation as fat burners affecting fat reduction, weight loss, as well as a compound which enhances uptake of nutrients by muscle cells and the vitamin and mineralizing supplements, available www.muscle-zone. pl
Molybdenum (the element of the chromium groups, atomic no. 42, a chemical symbol Mo) - a trace element involved in the metabolic conversion of carbohydrates and fats and increases the absorption of iron. It is used to treat anaemia. Well affects the mood.. It is a component of many dietary supplements and in foods such as lettuce, cabbage and other leafy green vegetables, whole grains (corn, sunflower, etc.).
Boron - an element of boron group, symbol B, atomic number (Z) - 5, belongs to a group of micronutrients. The organism, it is responsible for the synthesis of nucleic acids and prevents the release of excess calcium from the bones. Is an activator of enzymes in metabolism. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits (grapefruit, bitter orange), legumes, grapes, malt beer. The supplementation is rarely used, mostly in vitamin and a vitamin-mineralizing supplements.
Dosage: the lack of standards for daily consumption. Excess of boron is toxic for the organism.
Boron citrate – what is it?
Boron citrate is a combination of citric acid and boron, a trace element, whose the most interesting and valuable property is stimulation of testosterone synthesis.
Scientific studies demonstrated that boron supplementation not only positively affects the increase in total testosterone level in men, but also can decrease the globulin level, which binds sex hormones (SHBG), which raises the levels of the bioactive free testosterone. Complementing boron in diet can protect menopausal women from the natural decline in androgens and estrogens levels. Thanks to that, it contributes to the reduction in osteoporosis risk, as sex hormones, such as testosterone and estradiol, play an important role in maintaining high mineral density of bones.
Boron deficiencies can induce neurological symptoms, resembling symptoms of magnesium deficiencies, such as low activity of delta waves, which hinders relaxation. Boron deficiency deteriorates also cognitive functions.
Boron citrate can be found in complex preparations available in the offer of muscle-zone.pl
Antioxidant Complex - a set of selected anti-oxidants causing a reduction in oxidative stress by neutralizing free radicals and reacting with oxygen forms, improves metabolism and enhances immunity and wellness of the body. Antioxidant Complex is a proprietary manufacturer formula. Components (no quantitative data) are grape seed extract and green tea (standardized for presence of EGCG) and R-acid ALA. Grape seed extract is a source of active ingredients with antioxidant, binding free oxygen radicals. Green tea extract (green tea extract), containing biologically active compounds (DTH EGCG), used in sports supplementation in the composition of fat burners. R-ALA is the active form showing more beneficial properties and bioactive ALA potential, used in the prevention of diabetes (as insulin-mimetic). As a powerful antioxidant effect for better absorption of nutrients, improve creatine transport and storage of glycogen and amino acids. N-acetyl-cysteine is involved in glutathione synthesis, elimination of free oxygen radicals..Antioxidant complexes are available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), acetylated form of cysteine, one of the 22 amino acids building proteins, of wide use in medicine and sports supplements. Neutralizes the effects of paracetamol overdose, it is protecting on the liver, influences on the synthesis of glutathione, and the nervous system (effect on NMDA receptors). It increases the body's immunity to inflammation (especially of the upper respiratory tract). Available in the form of medicines and dietary supplements in sports pharmacies and www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: the lack of standards unit consumption. Doses as customarily used in supplementation.
Resveratrol - is a natural phenolic, compound produced as an antagonist of pathogens. It can be found, among others, in grapes, peanuts and red wine. It is oxidizing, preventing forming of free radicals of oxygen, supports the operation of systems: the hormone (binds to receptors of estrogenic and reduces the activity of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, is an aromatase inhibitor), blood (oxygenation of organism), and immune. In the sports supplementation used in silhouetted disciplines due to reduce of fat tissue. It is a component of supplements to support the functioning of the endocrine system (increases testosterone levels, lowering estrogen levels), antioxidant complexes and detoxifying the organism supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: the lack of strict standards of daily consumption.
Grape seed extract is a valuable source of active ingredients: flavonoids, fatty acids, proanthocyanidins and vitamin E, an antioxidant, binding free radicals, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregating. It is a component of a pro-health supplements enhancing preventive treatment of the circulatory system diseases. Available in the form of mono-preparation supplements or as a component of nutritional supplements (creatine stacks and nitrogen boosters), vitamin, herbal detoxificating.
Dosage: 50-100 mg per day.
ALA (alpha-lipoic acid) is a vitamin-like substance, a metabolite of catecholamines with strong antioxidant properties, it enhances anti-free-radicals action of some vitamins (A and E). ALA is synthesized at low levels by the body. It is a component of such products as broccoli, yeast, chicken liver, spinach. In the medicine it is used in the prevention of diabetic neuropathy (tissues shows a sensitivity to the insulin hormone, and it stimulates blood sugar levels). It has a positive effect on the functioning of the circulatory system and heart by the anti-arteriosclerosis action. It improves transport of creatine. It affects the storage of glycogen in muscle and liver.
Antioxidant properties of ALA are used in sports supplementation, along with the assimilation of nutrients. ALA is found in the form of mono-formula and is a compound of multicomponent products as: amino acids, creatine nitrogen boosters, as well as insulin-like (insulin-mimetic substances).
Olive leaf extract is produced from the leaves of the olive (Olea Europea) is the source of oleuropein, coumarin derivative, belonging to secoiridoids. It effects: increases thermogenesis, leading to a reduction in body fat, increases the immune system, minimizing the risk of developing heart disease and cancer. It is also supporting the fight against free radicals.
Olive leaf extract is a component of weight loss supplements (including thermogenic), antioxidants sets, used in the composition of pre-workout supplements in sports supplementation.
Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) is a physiological antioxidant, a fat soluble. It takes an active part in the process of creating the energy of ATP. intracorporeal synthesis requires the presence of B vitamins and trace elements, its intensification is caused by heavy training stress or under the influence of stress. Beneficial effects of Coenzyme Q10 has been found on the cardiovascular system, lipid profile (lowering LDL) cholesterol and reduce the risk of heart disease. Reducing the level of coenzyme Q10 starts when the age of 35, hence must be supplemented by preparations available in cosmetics (external action on the skin), and supplements intensifying the production of energy (for athletes strength) as well as mono-preparation supplement available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Dosage: 10 - 90 mg / 24h
Lutein, a derivative of alpha-carotene is a natural plant dye, colouring in yellow, is also present in the yolk of egg. In the body, located primarily in the retina of the human eye (together with Zeaxanthin), it acts as a natural filter for the eye, absorbing ultraviolet radiation. It is a powerful antioxidant, neutralizing free radicals. Available in the form of mono-preparation supplements and multi-compound supplements with antioxidant, protecting the eyes, action, as well as multivitamins, creatine stacks and no-boosters.
Ginger root extract is an extract of ginger - plants occurring in tropical Asia and Australia, the Zingiberaceae famly, (in Zingiberaceae are also turmeric and cardamom which are just as ginger a valuable kitchen spice). Characterized by a high content of gingerols (phenylpropane derivatives), acting inflammatory, diaphoretic, warming, antioxidant reducing oxidation of LDL cholesterol and the deposition of atherosclerotic plaque on the walls of blood vessels. It is used in the reducing body fat supplements. In combination with glucosamine and curcumin it affects the regeneration of joints, treatment of musculoskeletal system injury and regeneration. In the sports supplementation pro-health and thermogenic potential of ginger root is used.
Dosage: 50-200 mg per day.
Gingerols - contained in the ginger rhizome active ingredients are derivatives of phenylpropane. Anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic, warming and regulating the digestive system and digestive tract. They are an antioxidant that reduces oxidation of LDL cholesterol and the building-up of atherosclerotic plaques, lower blood pressure. They also are used in the supplements for the reduction of body fat. When combined with glucosamine, chondroitin and curcumin allow for the regeneration of joints. In the In the sports supplementation they are used for their anti-inflammatory potential, facilitating treatment and rehabilitation after injuries of motoric organs.
Dosage: 10-20 mg per day.
Choline bitartrate a combination of one molecule of tartaric acid and choline, and in this embodiment is a precursor of acetylcholine (neurotransmitter). The human body is able to intracellular synthesis of choline, using the amino acid and vitamin B12. Because of the possibility of shortages of the above mentioned substances, it is necessary to supplement them with supplementation. Choline is a component of lecithin, which is the building substance of cells conditioning the proper functioning of the nervous system, and sphingomyelin, acting as an insulator of nerve tissue. Bitartrate affects the course of fat metabolism. In the sports supplementation of choline, bitartrate is used in the stimulating supplements,, affecting concentration and programs of weight control (fat reduction).
Dosage: 1-3 grams per day.
Alpha GPC (L-Alpha Glucerylphosphorylcholine, alphaglycerylphosphorylcholine) occurs naturally in the brain and milk. It is a chemical compound (a derivative of choline and its provider in the body) providing a precursor for the synthesis of acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter. Probably it has an impact on the secretion of the growth hormone that allows the intensification of tissue regeneration and it is improving the general condition and forming of proper body building.
The medicine uses it in the neurological treatments (stress, depression). In the sports supplementation is rarely used. It is a part of the supplements supporting a night renewal process.
Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) is soluble in water, part of the vitamin B complex. Synthesized in the body. Participates in energy conversion (metabolism) of proteins. Used in ointments to prevent excessive sun exposure, protecting against ultraviolet radiation. Positive effect on the condition of the skin and hair. According to a recent study, in conjunction with folic acid, allows to restore hair natural colour on gray. Synthesized in the body. Natural source of acquisition are: brewer's yeast, wheat germ, bran, whole grains, and rice and products of animal origin: liver and kidneys.
Dosage - the lack of strict standards daily dose
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