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1 tablet covers the needs for the majority of vitamins and part of minerals, therefore it will work great as prophylaxis and for supplementing gentle deficits. In case of poorly diversified diet and low amounts of vegetables and fruit, higher doses may be applied, 2-3 tablets a day, adjusted to the individual needs.
Universal is a well known among bodybuilders manufacturer of nutritional supplements and diet supplements. The company offers a wide range of amino-acid supplements, vitamin and mineral supplements complexes, energy bars, protein supplements, gainers, recovery supplements and supplements supporting fat burning and muscle building.
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|per 1 tablet||amount||%DV|
|Calcium (as calcium phosphate)||160 mg||20%|
|Phosphorus (as dicalcium phosphate)||125 mcg||16%|
|Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid)||60 mg||100%|
|Magnesium (as magnesium oxide )||40 mg||13%|
|Niacin (as nicotinic acid amide)||18 mg||*|
|Vitamin E (as d-α-tocopherol succinate)||8 mg||80%|
|Pantothenic acid (as d-calcium panthonenate )||6 mg||100%|
|Zinc (as zinc oxide)||5 mg||30%|
|Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine HCl)||2 mg||100%|
|Thiamine (as thiamine mononitrate)||1,4 mg||93%|
|Copper (as cupric oxide)||2 mg||*|
|Manganese (as manganese sulphate)||1 mg||*|
|Vitamin A (as acetate)||917 mcg||115%|
|Folic acid||200 mcg||100%|
|Vitamin K (as phytonadione)||25 mcg||*|
|Iodine (kelp)||12 mcg||1%|
|Vitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin)||1 mcg||100%|
|Vitamin D3 (as cholecalcipherol)||5 mcg||100%|
|Selenium (as sodium selenite)||21 mcg||*|
|Chromium (as chromium chloride)||60 mcg||*|
|Molybdenum (as sodium molybdate)||1 mcg||*|
Whey protein (whey), stearic acid and magnesium stearate, soy and pharmaceutical glaze.
Calcium (element chem. symbol Ca, atomic no. 20, the group of alkaline earth metals) is the basic building substance of bones and teeth, in which stored is 99% of the element, in the form of hydroxylapatite. When building bones and teeth, phosphorus is very important in the right proportion. It is a base-forming element and activator of many enzymes (ATPase) necessary to release the energy of ATP. It has a significant effect on blood clotting and regulates blood pressure and neuromuscular conductivity. Thanks to the reduced permeability of cell membranes, it soothes the symptoms of food allergies. Calcium is actively involved in the metabolism of iron interacts with vitamins A, C and D and phosphorus, magnesium. Natural source of calcium are animal products (dairy products, sardines, salmon, sprats eaten with bones) and plant products (nuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds). Absorption takes place in the small intestine (less in the colon), it has an effect on the level of lactose, insoluble fibre, organic acids, alkalinity (low pH). The best absorption have organic compounds (lactates, amino acid chelates etc.). Obstructing the absorption of calcium is caused by: phytic acid and oxalic acid as well as excess fat. Scientific studies have confirmed that the combination of calcium, magnesium, boron and vitamin D in dose 3 mg / 24h effectively prevent osteoporosis. Supplements on the market are both mono-preparation supplements (enriched with vitamin D3) and multi-component supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Calcium deficiency disorders manifested in the construction of the bones (osteoporosis) and iron metabolism. The symptoms are: rickets, cramps and muscle tremor, osteoporosis.
Excess resulting from an overdose of calcium supplements containing vitamin D3 for children and adults overdose of calcium (hypercalcemia). Symptoms of hypercalcemia are: lack of appetite, vomiting and constipation.
The dosage administered in various publications are inconsistent: 800 - 1000 mg / 24 h (100 - 500 mg / 24h)
Phosphorus (chemical element of nitrogen family, occurring in several colours: white [poisonous], red, purple and black). It is a micro element involved in the physiological responses of the organism. It is a factor of the proper structure of bones and teeth, storing approx. 85% of the element in the form of hydroxyapatite. Adjusts the acidity in the body by increasing the pH. It is a component of nucleic acids. It also affects the proper functioning of the kidneys and the heart and nerves (transfer pulse). A natural source of obtaining of phosphorus are both plant (eggs, seeds, nuts, whole grains) and animal origin products (poultry, different types of meat, fish). Phosphorus deficiency and strengthen the bone structure can be adjusted by the use of appropriate nutrients and supplements.
Phosphorus deficiency causes bone disease (rickets) and phlegmon.
Excess of phosphorus (although it is excreted through the kidneys) can cause an imbalance of minerals (especially lower calcium levels, up to total loss). Particular caution in consuming products and specifics containing phosphorus is recommended to people suffering from chronic kidney disorders and the elderly. Excess of potassium should be balanced with the increased intake of calcium.
Dosage: 800-1200 mg per day. The higher limit of dosage should be consumed by pregnant women and nursing mothers.
Dicalcium phosphate - a combination of phosphorus and calcium (classified as macronutrients) in a single molecule. Calcium is the building substance of bones, teeth and activator of enzymes, including ATP-ers release ATP energy. It affects the blood clotting and muscle-nerve conduction. Phosphorus, besides a common feature with calcium- the bone structure, conditioning their development and normal condition, and also affects the formation of nucleic acids and brain tissue. It stimulates the acid-base. It participates in the processes of energy (phosphorylation) and phosphocreatine synthesis. Calcium phosphate is used in supplementation, as the ingredient of mineralizing, vitamin-mineral and pre- and post-workout supplements.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) it is a vitamin soluble in body fluids, can be taken from foods (fruits and vegetables), or as drug derived synthetically. The largest of its resources can be found in broccoli, Brussels sprout, kale, black currant fruit and hawthorn, citrus fruits, tomatoes, Savoy cabbage, potatoes. In fact, intake of vitamin C of the food products does not limit the absorbed quantity. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a potent antioxidant, it is an antitoxic, increasing the immune system due to the elimination of risk of bacterial contamination. Vitamin C prevents rupture of blood vessels, affects the blood cholesterol level. It substantially increases the absorption of iron. Inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Lowers stress levels.
Vitamin C deficiency causes abnormal development of connective tissue, cracking capillaries, abnormal calcification of bone tissue, impaired absorption of iron, scorbutus. With the lack of vitamin C, all kinds of injuries do not heal up properly. Vitamin C deficiency can be caused by smoking; each cigarette is destroying up to 100 mg of vitamin C.
Dosage: The demand is 60-80 mg daily. It does not limit the ability to consume higher doses. Some side effects may occur only with longer taking of synthetic vitamin C.
Ascorbic acid – vitamin C. Its biologically active form is the L-isomer, which negatively rotates the polarised light, so that it is a dextroisomer (laevorotatory vitamin C does not exist). It is a strong antioxidant; it reduces the amounts of free radicals, which reduces oxidative stress, a factor leading to cell apoptosis, which is why it is indicated to be a cause for premature ageing.
It supports the immune system functions and increases body system immunity. It is an essential element of the collagen synthesis path, which is why it positively affects the condition of connective tissue. Hence, it promotes also wound healing and increases the durability of capillary vessel. It is involved in transformations of tyrosine and carnitine as well as of some nutrients, so that it affects metabolism. It can also have an impact on the nervous system functions, as it reduces mental fatigue.
Higher supply of vitamin C is especially recommended in the periods of more intensive body system burden, after infections and in order to accelerate regeneration. The indications for increased supply of the vitamin are also hard physical work or intensive trainings.
Magnesium (element from the group of alkaline earth metals, atomic no. 12, a chemical symbol - Mg), one of the most important health microelements, participates in the synthesis process of the disintegration of high energy compounds and processes of transformation of hydrocarbons and fats. It affects the dilation of blood vessels and lower blood pressure, prevents hypercoagulable state. Shortages affect cardiac arrhythmias, malignant muscle cramps, insomnia and anxiety. It is a component of many dietary supplements and found in foods such as whole grain bread, legumes, buckwheat, rice, fish, meat, as well as chocolate, cocoa and nuts.
Dosage of 100 - 500 mg / day
Magnesium oxide – the most common form of this macroelement in supplementation that is essential to the human body. It belongs to a group of key intracellular cations and that is why its adequate levels are critical to maintaining the body’s homeostasis. An active lifestyle increases requirements for magnesium and that is why its supplementation is recommended strongly to athletes.
The most common symptoms associated with magnesium deficiencies are muscle cramps and eye twitches. This is connected with a significant impact of magnesium ions on the efficiency of the nervous system. Its adequate intake helps maintain neuromotor fitness. Deficiencies of this element are also said to aggravate symptoms of depression.
What is more, magnesium supplementation supports healthy cardiovascular function. It is suggested that its deficiencies promote the development of atherosclerotic lesions and hypertension. Too low dietary magnesium intake is associated with arrythmia and increased risk of heart attack.
Magnesium supplements are recommended to individuals doing hard mental work and learning. Its healthy levels enhance focus and may facilitate learning. It has a beneficial impact on sleep quality.
Vitamin B3 (vitamin PP, niacin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide) is niacinamide niacin. It is used in interaction with vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in the synthesis of hormones during lactation. It provides proper functioning of the brain and nervous system. It is helpful in inflammatory conditions of the skin. Required for synthesis of sex hormone, estrogen, testosterone, cortisone, and insulin. It does not lose its properties in the manufacturing and storage. The source of acquiring vitamins PP are both products of animal origin (the lean meat, eggs, fish) and vegetable origin (dates, figs, hazelnuts, plums).
Dosage: 2-12 mg / day for children, 14 mg / day for women, 16 mg / day for men and 17-18 mg / day for pregnant or nursing women.
Nicotinic acid amide – also known as nicotinamide, belongs to a group of compounds referred to as vitamin B3, along with nicotinic acid and inositol hexanicotinate. It exerts its main biological activity as a precursor to two key coenzymes for efficient energy metabolism of the body: nicotinamide adenine dinucletodide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. They are responsible for carrying hydrogen and electrons in the respiratory chain and thus facilitate efficient energy production by the human body.
Nicotinamide supplementation is recommended for active persons not only because of its ability to promote the body’s energy efficiency. It has also a beneficial impact on mind, increases tolerance to stressors and may reduce symptoms of depression. It is pointed out that niacin supplementation correlates positively with sleep quality.
Unlike nicotinic acid, nicotinamide does not show the ability to produce a “flush effect”, namely redness in the face caused by taking large doses of niacin. It has been also shown to influence partly cardiovascular function.
Nicotinamide is also indicated to influence beneficially the absorption of other B vitamins and vitamin D. This compound should be taken with caution by diabetics because it can increase the body’s demand for insulin.
Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a fat soluble. Due to its antioxidant action, it is a protection of other vitamins (e.g. Vitamins A). Protects the body against free radicals, strengthens the walls of blood vessels and its capacity, causing their dilation and dissolution of blood clots. With the reduction of coagulation, it is used as an antiatherogenic medicine, it allows for the proper course of pregnancy. In cooperation with selenium it slows the ageing process of cells, strengthening connective tissue. In the food it is present in whole-grain bread, sprout and grains, vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower), soya beans and sunflower seeds, vegetable fat and hen egg yolks. Also it is used in sports medicine in the form of nutrients and supplements.
Vitamin E deficiency reduces building of red blood cells, results in changes in muscle and disorders of pregnancies.
Dosage: for children, 0.5 mg / 1 kg of weight; for adults 10-30 mg per day.
Vitamin B5 (calcium pantothenate, pantothenic acid, pantotenol) is part of a complex of B vitamins affects the development of the central nervous system, is the building substance of cells. In the body synthesized by the intestinal bacteria. It occurs in animal products (meat, kidneys, liver) and plants (wheat germ, wheat bran, nuts, grains, green vegetables). Prevents fatigue and excessive stress, accelerates the healing of cuts and wounds, acts as a stimulant for the side effects of the use of antibiotics. Deficiency causes skin changes, and difficulty in blood clotting.
Calcium panthonenate – a salt of pantothenic acid and calcium used to raise the intake of this first substance, belonging to a group of compounds called vitamin B5. It is active in many biochemical processes in the human body as an extremely important factor for maintaining homeostasis.
Adequate intake of pantothenic acid helps maintain healthy metabolism of nutrients and obtain easily energy from them. Deficiencies of this compound may be manifested by chronic fatigue and lack of strength, especially in physically active persons.
What is more, pantothenic acid is present in the synthesis pathway of many vital hormones. Because of that, its sufficient supply is critical to hormonal balance. Testosterone is one of the hormones that are affected by pantothenic acid intake. Because of that, its deficiencies may have a negative effect on sexual function.
Pantothenic acid is also indicated to have a cardioprotective effect. It helps maintain normal cardiac function and reduces the risk of atherosclerosis by optimising the lipid profile.
Zinc (chemical element from transition group 12) belongs to the trace elements, it helps maintain acid-base balance of the body, protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It provides bone metabolism and transport of oxygen. It protects the body against free radicals. Necessary for the proper operation of the senses of taste and smell. Positive impact on the process of insulin metabolism in the pancreas. It supports visual adaptation to the dark, has a significant influence on brain function. It is helpful in the treatment of infertility and mental illness.
Zinc deficiency leads to decreased immunity, and growth retardation. Zinc deficiency can occur in case of excessive consumption of simple sugars. In the case of hormonal therapy of women with irregular menstruation, the therapy should be associated with increased consumption of zinc. It can be found in food like: beans, eggs, carrots, beef and pork meat, milk, nuts, citrus fruits, seafood, rice, cottage cheese, lettuce.
Dosage: Daily 12-15 mg zinc. Exceeding the daily dose of 20 mg cause symptoms of poisoning of the body.
What is zinc oxide?
Zinc oxide is a binding of oxygen with zinc in the II oxidation state. It is one of the forms used in dietary supplements.
Zinc is a mineral with a very wide range of effects on the human organism. Among its properties is, for example, the beneficial effect on the condition of the skin, especially helpful for people struggling with acne. Men appreciate zinc for its ability to increase testosterone levels and reduce oestradiol, which is possible thanks to aromatase inhibition. The mineral is also beneficial for the thyroid gland, as it can help to increase the level of hormones FT3 and FT4. The neurological aspect of zinc’s activity is also very interesting. It has the ability to block the access of glycine to the NMDA receptor, and the initiation of ion flow in the receptor becomes impossible for glycine. Thanks to that, zinc can protect neurons from the excitotoxic activity of glutamate. It also contributes to the growth of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which can be beneficial for cognitive functions and reduce the risk of depression.
Zinc oxide can be found in vitamin and mineral complexes offered by muscle-zone.pl.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) is soluble in the liquid. It participates in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. By reducing the amount of fat in the blood do not enable deposition of the body. It helps the absorption of magnesium and vitamin B12 (cobalamin). It works on the muscle antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory pain in the joints. It acts anti. It provides efficient operation of the brain. It increases energy increasing vigor of a man. The demand for vitamin B6 increases during pregnancy and breast-feeding infants. The natural product is: yeast, eggs, wheat germ, meat (liver), wheat bran, nuts, peanuts peanuts, soybeans. There is a hypothesis that can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
Deficiency of vitamin B6 causes abnormal metabolism of proteins, decrease in lymphocytes in the blood, causes a feeling of lethargy and fatigue intensifies.
Dosage: 1.5-2.5 mg daily (increased demand during pregnancy and lactation).
What is pyridoxine hydrochloride?
Pyridoxine hydrochloride is a basic, the most commonly used form of vitamin B6 in supplements and fortified foods. It is a vitamin soluble in water. It converts to the active form of the vitamin - pyridoxal phosphate.
Vitamin B6 is a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions. It takes part in the production of many neurotransmitters, such as GABA, serotonin and catecholamines and it takes part in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids. It is an important factor for the process of the creation of red cells and hemoglobin and its deficit may be one of the factors causing anemia. This vitamin contributes to maintaining proper energy metabolism and is important for maintaining well-being and good psychological condition. Its presence supports the breakdown of pro-inflammatory homocysteine to cysteine and further metabolites, thanks to which it may decrease the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiological incidents.
Pyridoxine hydrochloride may be found in many vitamin B complexes and vitamin-mineral preparations available in the offer of muscle-zone.pl.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is soluble in liquids, is involved in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Required for growth of the organism. Takes part in the production of erythrocytes (red blood cells). It is located in natural foods, such as yeast, meat (especially liver, kidney, heart), milk, fish and green leafy vegetables.
A deficiency of vitamin B2 inhibits the growth, diseases of the mouth, loss and greasy hair, seborrhea and stratification of nails. Increases skin roughness and susceptibility to acne and oily skin.
Dosage: 1-2 mg per day.
Vitamin B1 (thiamin, vitamin B) improves mental alertness and strengthens the nervous system ensuring the proper functioning of the brain. It improves cardiac and muscular system. It is suportive in the treatment of shingles. Involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Natural source of vitamin B1 are brown bread, yeast, eggs, raw vegetables, meat, milk, legumes, cheese.
Vitamin B1 deficiency hinders the processes of decomposition of sugars (catabolism), causes a loss of appetite and disorders in the functioning of the digestive tract, can cause polyneuritis and disease beriberi.
Dosage: Recommended daily intake is 1-2 mg.
Copper - trace mineral that facilitates the introduction of iron into hemoglobin, allowing the correct functioning of antioxidant processes. It is an important component of enzymes that affect the processes of aerobic metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and in the formation of collagen. With proper diet, do not use supplements containing copper, as an overdose can cause insomnia, hair loss. It occurs in foods such as legumes, offal, plums, seafood. Copper compounds must be used in a responsible way, because many of them have toxic properties.
Dosing: A sufficient amount of copper provides proper diet.
Manganese, of which a natural source is chocolate, grain products with whole grain, nuts, legumes and dried cranberry, is a component of enzymes and their activator. It stimulates the properties and functionality of connective tissue and provides proper functioning of the brain. It affects the function of the pancreas, ensuring proper insulin metabolism and condition of the bone and joints. Magnesium deficiency contributes to serious disorders in synthesis of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin, reduction in insulin sensitivity of tissues, affects bone resorption. Manganese chelates are used in complexometry in chemical analysis and in medicine for the treatment of severe poisoning (antitoxin) by heavy metals, in sports supplementation, manganese impact on the functioning of the locomotor system is used. It is a component of the so-called regenerators of joints and a vitamin-mineralizing and mineralizing supplements.
Vitamin A (retinol) is present in foods of animal origin (fish of the sea, fish, eels, liver, pork and beef, eggs, butter). In the plant products it is present as provitamin A (b-carotene), a powerful antioxidant. The food products containing pro-vitamin A are fruits in yellow and red, including apricots, tomatoes. Necessary in process of building and assimilation of proteins, affects the normal growth of bones and helps the treatment of eye diseases.Iinhibits the excessive action of the thyroid hormone - thyroxine, which simultaneously prevents the deposition of excess vitamin A. Necessary in the sports diet of in the form of food, such as dietary supplements and nutritional supplements.
Vitamin A deficiency causes growth inhibition, flaking and dryness of the skin, impaired night vision (i.e. Night blindness).
Excess of vitamin A leads to calcification of the bones and some soft tissues, and abnormalities in the functioning of glomerulonephritis
Dosage: Specified in IU and it is 5000 IU per day.
Folic acid - also known as vitamin B9, is a synthetic form of naturally occurring folates. It needs to be transformed to folates in order to be biologically active also in the human organism. Therefore, its supplementation is recommended to people who do not have problems with methylation processes.
The majority of people associate folic acid with the period of pregnancy. It is definitely a justified association. Proper supply of vitamin B9 conditions correct development of the fetus and prevents disorders of neural tube defects in a baby.
Supplementation with folic acid also demonstrates positive influence on the functions of the nervous system of adults. Some sources say that it is conducive to maintaining beneficial emotional states. Moreover, folic acid takes part in the process of erythropoiesis, thanks to which it enables efficient production of red cells.
Supplementation with folic acid should be also considered by men who deal with low sperm quality. It was proven that complementing the level of vitamin B9 is conducive to increasing reproductive abilities of men.
Vitamin K exists in the triad of vitamins: menaquinone (vitamin. K1), menadione (vitamin. K2) and menadione (vitamin. K3), soluble in fat. It is produced by bacteria in the human colon. Natural sources of vitamin. K are: eggs, kale, cauliflower, cabbage, meat, milk, lettuce, spinach, fish oil and liver. The synthetic form is administered to newborns, to reduce the sterility of the gastrointestinal tract. Used as a antihaemorrhagic, due to its participation in the process of prothrombin. Increases antibacterial and antifungal immunity. Prevents abundant bleeding during menstruation of women.
Vitamin K deficiency causes external bleeding and ecchymosis on skin, decreased prothrombin synthesis in the liver (especially while taking antibiotics and sulfanilamide).
Iodine - more than two-thirds of iodine is stored in the thyroid gland and it is a component produced by it hormones - thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which are essential in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals and regulating the processes of growth, causing it usefulness in sports supplementation. It is also the ingredient of weight loss products. Regulates and controls body temperature. Natural source of acquisition of iodine are: bladderwrack, seafood, sea fish and onion and vegetables growing in soil containing this element and most of all iodized salt ..
Deficiency of iodine in the body cause hypothyroidism, and consequently overweight, mental slowing (cretinism inclusive). It is the cause of a goitre. Iodine deficiency can be caused by rhodanates and polyphenols (e.g. contained in cabbage and cauliflower), hemagglutinin found in legumes.
Excess iodine can result in inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis (this happens in a small percentage of cases).
Dosage: Treatment of iodine should be done under medical supervision. Daily demand for adults is 150 mcg. For pregnant women daily demand increases to 175 mcg.
Kelp - seaweed belonging to the brown algae in the order Laminariales, which is a valuable source of iodine, necessary for thyroid function and reduce body fat, affecting the metabolic rate as well as participating in the detoxification of the body. It is a source of alginates, minerals and vitamins. Positive effect on the appearance of the skin, nails and teeth and hair. Available in dietary supplements and sports in the category of "health and beauty" in the form mono-preparations and multiple mineralizing a vitamin supplements, fat burners and other means of thermogenic effect, slimming, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: in terms of pure iodine 150 - 250mcg / 24h. Higher doses by prior arrangement with your doctor or nutritionist.
Biotin (vitamin H, co-enzyme R) is in a group of B vitamins, due to the presence of sulphur compounds it is involved in the synthesis of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Also synthesized in the intestines. It enhances the production of hormones and regulates cholesterol levels. It reduces muscle pain. It prevents hair loss and graying of hair. It soothes the skin inflammations. No toxic effects. Often combined with other B group vitamins and vitamin A. The natural sources of biotin are: whole grain bread, yeast, eggs (yolk), milk, brown rice and cheese.
Daily demand: 100-300 mg per day
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, cyanocobalamin) is a vitamin soluble in liquids. Participates in the production of red blood cells and is essential in the absorption of iron by the body. It calming effect, a positive effect on concentration and memory. Intensifies its action in cooperation with folic acid (vitamin M). Usually occurs in animal products, fish and dairy products. It contains trace elements.
Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to pernicious anaemia, general and immunity weakness, inhibiting of growth and damage to the myelin sheath of nerves.
What is cyanocobalamin?
Cyanocobalamin is a basic, the most commonly met form of vitamin B12 in vitamin B complexes and multivitamins available on the market.
Vitamin B12 is the most known for its influence on neurology. It takes part in building and regenerating myelin sheaths of neurons, thanks to which it contributes to the protection of the nervous system against damages. Because of the ability to increase the level of S-Adenosyl methionine, vitamin B12 may contribute to more efficient synthesis of many neurotransmitters, thanks to which it positively influences well-being and psychical condition.
This vitamin is also engaged in the process of blood production and its deficiencies contribute to the creation of megaloblastic anemia. Its deficits may also concern vegetarians and vegans, elderly people, people with absorption disorders and those using drugs neutralizing gastric acid.
Cyanocobalamin is included in the composition of many complex vitamin supplements that may be found in the offer of muscle-zone.pl.
Vitamin D belongs to fat soluble vitamins, occurs in three forms: calciferol (vitamin D1) ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), it is formed under the action of sunlight for at least 15 minutes per day. In the absence of sunlight it should be administered in the diet in the form of fish oil (Vitamin A + D3) and fish oils. It is responsible for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It is the building substance of bone tissue particularly necessary during pregnancy, childhood, and for athletes. It is a component of dietary supplements and nutrients among competetive athletes. Deficiency of vitamin D causes children growth inhibition, and rickets.
For adults - deficiency causes osteomalacia.
Excess of vitamin D causes headaches, alopecia, nausea, drowsiness, blurred vision, pain in the long bones, the deposition of calcium deposits.
Dosage: 400 IU units during the day.
Selenium (element, chemical symbol Se, atomic no. 34, from chalcogenide, it is present in several allotropic forms). It is supplied the body with food in the form of seleno-amino acids (selenomethionine - gathering supplies, and selenocysteine – a component of glutathione peroxidase, deiodinase and seleno-proteins). Regulates the functioning of the thyroid gland. It affects the growth and development, including sexual development (by increasing production and sperm motility). It affects the flexibility of the tissue, removes some of the toxins from the body and destroys cancer cells and reduces the severity of menopause in women. Natural products containing selenium are seafood (sea fish, oysters, bladderwrack) and vegetable products (broccoli, onions, wheat germ, bran, tomatoes) and animal products (poultry, eggs). It is also included in the composition of vitamin-mineral and mineral supplements. Selenium supplementation is recommended as a dietary supplement of active people having diet poor in this element, and as a factor increasing the body's immunity.
Selenium deficiency increases the risk of developing cancer and heart disease. Symptoms of selenium deficiency are: cardiomyopathy, growth stoppage, disorders of detoxification processes which may lead to damage to the kidneys and liver.
An excess of selenium can lead to selenosis (the disease, the symptoms are: loss of hair, nail cracks, lesions).
daily demand of selenium for pregnant women 65 mcg; nursing mothers 75 mcg; men 7 mcg.
Sodium is an important component of the intracellular fluids, and is a regulator of acid-base balance. Along with potassium affects the proper of growth and provides the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. The source of acquisition is table salt (NaCl) and bladderwrack, shellfish, bacon, beef, and of plant beets and carrots. People on salt-free diet should avoid, among others, spicy sauces and smoked meats and sausages.
Sodium deficiency is very rare, at heaving sweating after a long effort (e.g. in the marathon).
Excess sodium increases blood pressure (especially for the elderly), edema and increased thirst. Exceeding the daily dose of 14g a day can cause poisoning.
Chromium (chemical element from transition group of the chromium, chemically active) is actively involved in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It comes in the easily assimilable organic form and inorganic. Along with insulin, as a component of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), is used in insulin-dependent diabetes treatment, insulin involved in the metabolism of glucose in t proteins transport. Activator of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Available in animal origin products (liver, veal, chicken, turkey meat, oysters) and plant-origin (bananas, broccoli, cereal, wheat germ, spinach). Supplements containing chromium are recommended for fat loss (also thermogenic), and improving the functioning of the body. The sports supplementation used chromium in the form of mono-preparations or in the form of vitamin-mineral minerals supplements.
Chromium deficiency results in impaired glucose, reducing the insulin sensitivity. It causes a decrease in immunity and endurance of the body. It may be a cause of coronary heart disease. Sometimes it causes neurological disorders.
Dosage: A varied diet prevents from the deficiency of chromium in the body.
Dosage: The recommended dose of 50-150 mg per day.
Chlorine (chemical element from the group of halogens) - in the natural form of gas it is poisonous and water-soluble (until recently used as a disinfectant in the water supply system, now replaced by fluorination). It is chemically active element. It is used in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium (KCl). It participates in the process of digestion and maintains acid-base balance in the body, removes toxic products of metabolism in the liver (antitoxin). Natural source of chlorine for the body is salt and bladderwrack.
Chlorine deficiency can occur due to excessive sweating, vomiting, causing digestive tract problems. It also causes loss of hair and teeth.
Excess chlorine, for example. Drink excessive amounts of chlorinated water, destroys bacterial flora and vitamin E.
Dosage: Daily dose should not exceed 15 grams.
Molybdenum (the element of the chromium groups, atomic no. 42, a chemical symbol Mo) - a trace element involved in the metabolic conversion of carbohydrates and fats and increases the absorption of iron. It is used to treat anaemia. Well affects the mood.. It is a component of many dietary supplements and in foods such as lettuce, cabbage and other leafy green vegetables, whole grains (corn, sunflower, etc.).
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