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For the human body to perform at its maximum potential, it must receive many vital nutrients daily including vitamins and minerals. Becoming deficient in just one of these essential vitamins or minerals breaks down the metabolic pathway that produces optimum efficiency and overall health.
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Composition exceptionally rich in vitamins and minerals. According to the manufacturer, the recommended dose is 3 tablets a day, and it's an optimal dose when on a well balanced diet. To ensure it dissolves and absorbs active substances properly, it's good to take during a meal. An additional benefit's improved digestion, as the product contains a set of digestive enzymes. The product contains natural vitamins, minerals and nutrients and can therefore be used without any worries even for a long time.
CTD Sports is a brand of supplements and nutrients designed for athletes. Among their products there can be found testosterone boosters, supplements enhancing anabolism and sleep, pre-workout supplements, supplements increasing concentration, adding energy and protecting the liver.
|per daily portion (4 tablets)||amount||%DV|
|Vitamin A (as Beta-Carotene and Alpha-Carotene)||10,000 IU||200%|
|Vitamin C (as Ascorbic Acid, Ascorbyl Palmitate, from Calcium Ascorbate, Potassium Ascorbate, Zinc Ascorbate)||500 mg||834%|
|Vitamin D (as Cholecalciferol)||400 IU||100%|
|Vitamin E (as D-Alpha Tocopherol Succinate and Mixed Tocopherols)||200 IU||667%|
|Thiamine (as Thiamine Mononitrate)||37.5 mg||2,500%|
|Vitamin B2 (as Riboflavin-5-Phosphate)||37.5 mg||2,206%|
|Niacin (as Niacinamide and Inositol Hexaniacinate)||37.5 mg||188%|
|Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxine HCl)||37.5 mg||1,875%|
|Folic Acid||400 mcg||100%|
|Vitamin B12 (as Cyanocobalamin)||37.5 mcg||625%|
|Pantothenic Acid (as Calcium-D-Pantothenate)||37.5 mg||375%|
|Calcium (as Calcium Carbonate, Calcium Ascorbate, Calcium Fumarate, Calcium Aspartate, Calcium Citrate, Calcium Malate, Calcium Succinate, Calcium Gluconate)||500 mg||50%|
|Iodine (from Kelp)||75 mcg||50%|
|Magnesium (as Magnesium Oxide)||250 mg||63%|
|Zinc (as Zinc Citrate, as Zinc Ascorbate, as Zinc Picolinate, as Zinc Monomethionine, as Zinc Aspartate, as Zinc Gluconate)||25 mg||167%|
|Selenium (as L-Selenomethionine)||50 mcg||71%|
|Copper (as Copper Gluconate)||1 mg||50%|
|Manganese (as Manganese Gluconate, Manganese Amino Acid Chelate, Manganese Citrate, Manganese Aspartate)||5 mg||250%|
|Chromium (as Chromium Picolinate)||50 mcg||42%|
|Potassium (as Potassium Citrate, Potassium Ascorbate, Potassium Gluconate, Potassium Aspartate)||49.5 mg||1%|
|Vegetable Complex:Broccoli Head Powder, Celery Seed Powder, Cauliflower Bulb Powder, Cabbage Leaf Powder, Brussels Sprouts Powder, Wild Yam Root Powder, Collards Leaf Powder, Carrot Root Powder, Spinach Leaf Powder||50 mg||-|
|Citrus Complex:Lemon Fruit Powder, Lime Fruit Powder, Tangerine Fruit Powder, Grapefruit Powder, Orange Fruit Powder||50 mg||-|
|Garlic Root Extract||50 mg||-|
|Hesperidin Complex||25 mg||-|
|Betaine Hydrochloride||25 mg||-|
|Ginger Root Powder||15 mg||-|
|Spirulina Powder||15 mg||-|
|Chlorella Cracked Cell Wall Powder||15 mg||-|
|Wheat Grass Powder||15 mg||-|
|Barley Grass Powder||15 mg||-|
|Echinacea Purpurea Herb Powder||15 mg||-|
|Goldenseal Root Powder||15 mg||-|
|Polyphenol Complex (Grape Fruit Extract, Green Tea Leaf Extract)||15 mg||-|
|Probiotic Blend (Lactobacillus Acidophilus, Lactobacillus Bulgaricus, Lactobacillus Bifidus)||12.5 mg||-|
|Licorice Root Extract||12.5 mg||-|
|Bilberry Fruit Extract||12.5 mg||-|
|Garlic Bulb Powder||5 mg||-|
|Co Enzyme Q10||3 mg||-|
|Boron (as Boron Aspartate, Boron Citrate)||1 mg||-|
|Alpha Lipoic Acid||1,000 mcg||-|
|Cartenoid Complex (Zeaxanthin, Cryptoxanthin)||50 mcg||-|
Sorbitol, Gamma Cyclodextrin, Cephalins (Phosphadytyl Ethanoalamine, Serine), Xanthan Gum, Inulin, Stearic Acid, Magneium Stearate, Alfalfa Juice Concentrate, Cellulose
Vitamin A (retinol) is present in foods of animal origin (fish of the sea, fish, eels, liver, pork and beef, eggs, butter). In the plant products it is present as provitamin A (b-carotene), a powerful antioxidant. The food products containing pro-vitamin A are fruits in yellow and red, including apricots, tomatoes. Necessary in process of building and assimilation of proteins, affects the normal growth of bones and helps the treatment of eye diseases.Iinhibits the excessive action of the thyroid hormone - thyroxine, which simultaneously prevents the deposition of excess vitamin A. Necessary in the sports diet of in the form of food, such as dietary supplements and nutritional supplements.
Vitamin A deficiency causes growth inhibition, flaking and dryness of the skin, impaired night vision (i.e. Night blindness).
Excess of vitamin A leads to calcification of the bones and some soft tissues, and abnormalities in the functioning of glomerulonephritis
Dosage: Specified in IU and it is 5000 IU per day.
Beta-carotene (provitamin A) is a fat-soluble form of vitamin A (retinol). It is a necessary vitamin for the development and acquisition of proteins, necessary to rebuild a bone structure. Irreplaceable in the treatment of eye diseases (prevents decrease of vision and so called night blindness). It strengthens the immune system. It is a strong oxidant. In its natural form it can be found found only in plants (unlike retinol, which is present in foods of animal origin) such as chard, squash, kale, carrots, apricots, tomatoes). Available in the form of supplements and nutrients as an essential component of the sports diet.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) it is a vitamin soluble in body fluids, can be taken from foods (fruits and vegetables), or as drug derived synthetically. The largest of its resources can be found in broccoli, Brussels sprout, kale, black currant fruit and hawthorn, citrus fruits, tomatoes, Savoy cabbage, potatoes. In fact, intake of vitamin C of the food products does not limit the absorbed quantity. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a potent antioxidant, it is an antitoxic, increasing the immune system due to the elimination of risk of bacterial contamination. Vitamin C prevents rupture of blood vessels, affects the blood cholesterol level. It substantially increases the absorption of iron. Inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Lowers stress levels.
Vitamin C deficiency causes abnormal development of connective tissue, cracking capillaries, abnormal calcification of bone tissue, impaired absorption of iron, scorbutus. With the lack of vitamin C, all kinds of injuries do not heal up properly. Vitamin C deficiency can be caused by smoking; each cigarette is destroying up to 100 mg of vitamin C.
Dosage: The demand is 60-80 mg daily. It does not limit the ability to consume higher doses. Some side effects may occur only with longer taking of synthetic vitamin C.
Ascorbic acid – vitamin C. Its biologically active form is the L-isomer, which negatively rotates the polarised light, so that it is a dextroisomer (laevorotatory vitamin C does not exist). It is a strong antioxidant; it reduces the amounts of free radicals, which reduces oxidative stress, a factor leading to cell apoptosis, which is why it is indicated to be a cause for premature ageing.
It supports the immune system functions and increases body system immunity. It is an essential element of the collagen synthesis path, which is why it positively affects the condition of connective tissue. Hence, it promotes also wound healing and increases the durability of capillary vessel. It is involved in transformations of tyrosine and carnitine as well as of some nutrients, so that it affects metabolism. It can also have an impact on the nervous system functions, as it reduces mental fatigue.
Higher supply of vitamin C is especially recommended in the periods of more intensive body system burden, after infections and in order to accelerate regeneration. The indications for increased supply of the vitamin are also hard physical work or intensive trainings.
Calcium (element chem. symbol Ca, atomic no. 20, the group of alkaline earth metals) is the basic building substance of bones and teeth, in which stored is 99% of the element, in the form of hydroxylapatite. When building bones and teeth, phosphorus is very important in the right proportion. It is a base-forming element and activator of many enzymes (ATPase) necessary to release the energy of ATP. It has a significant effect on blood clotting and regulates blood pressure and neuromuscular conductivity. Thanks to the reduced permeability of cell membranes, it soothes the symptoms of food allergies. Calcium is actively involved in the metabolism of iron interacts with vitamins A, C and D and phosphorus, magnesium. Natural source of calcium are animal products (dairy products, sardines, salmon, sprats eaten with bones) and plant products (nuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds). Absorption takes place in the small intestine (less in the colon), it has an effect on the level of lactose, insoluble fibre, organic acids, alkalinity (low pH). The best absorption have organic compounds (lactates, amino acid chelates etc.). Obstructing the absorption of calcium is caused by: phytic acid and oxalic acid as well as excess fat. Scientific studies have confirmed that the combination of calcium, magnesium, boron and vitamin D in dose 3 mg / 24h effectively prevent osteoporosis. Supplements on the market are both mono-preparation supplements (enriched with vitamin D3) and multi-component supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Calcium deficiency disorders manifested in the construction of the bones (osteoporosis) and iron metabolism. The symptoms are: rickets, cramps and muscle tremor, osteoporosis.
Excess resulting from an overdose of calcium supplements containing vitamin D3 for children and adults overdose of calcium (hypercalcemia). Symptoms of hypercalcemia are: lack of appetite, vomiting and constipation.
The dosage administered in various publications are inconsistent: 800 - 1000 mg / 24 h (100 - 500 mg / 24h)
Potassium and sodium regulate the body's water resources, ensuring normal heart rhythm. Maintaining the proper level of potassium provides the proper oxidation of the brain, lowers blood pressure, increases the permeability of cell membranes (as an antagonist of calcium). It is a base-forming element. It is widely used in sports diet before and after training in the form of supplements, nutrients, vitamin-mineral preparations and minerals, concentrates and ready, isotonic and hypertonic beverages. Natural sources of acquisition of potassium are: vegetable products (bananas, citrus fruits, melons, mint leaves, green vegetables, potatoes) and animal products (sea fish, meat). Potassium is present in the form of organic compounds: citric acids, and fumarates gluconates and inorganic (chlorides, sulfates, oxides and carbonates).
Potassium deficiency (hypokalemia): excessive tiredness, headaches and irritability, problems with sleeping, muscle cramps, constipation. Potassium levels may drop sharply in the event of a reduction in blood sugar levels, prolonged starvation, severe diarrhea. They can occur when too much of strong coffee is consumed, with alcohol abuse and when eating too much sweets.
The excess of potassium (hyperkalemia) is often the cause of depression, hypotension, tingling in the extremities.
Zinc (chemical element from transition group 12) belongs to the trace elements, it helps maintain acid-base balance of the body, protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It provides bone metabolism and transport of oxygen. It protects the body against free radicals. Necessary for the proper operation of the senses of taste and smell. Positive impact on the process of insulin metabolism in the pancreas. It supports visual adaptation to the dark, has a significant influence on brain function. It is helpful in the treatment of infertility and mental illness.
Zinc deficiency leads to decreased immunity, and growth retardation. Zinc deficiency can occur in case of excessive consumption of simple sugars. In the case of hormonal therapy of women with irregular menstruation, the therapy should be associated with increased consumption of zinc. It can be found in food like: beans, eggs, carrots, beef and pork meat, milk, nuts, citrus fruits, seafood, rice, cottage cheese, lettuce.
Dosage: Daily 12-15 mg zinc. Exceeding the daily dose of 20 mg cause symptoms of poisoning of the body.
Vitamin D belongs to fat soluble vitamins, occurs in three forms: calciferol (vitamin D1) ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), it is formed under the action of sunlight for at least 15 minutes per day. In the absence of sunlight it should be administered in the diet in the form of fish oil (Vitamin A + D3) and fish oils. It is responsible for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It is the building substance of bone tissue particularly necessary during pregnancy, childhood, and for athletes. It is a component of dietary supplements and nutrients among competetive athletes. Deficiency of vitamin D causes children growth inhibition, and rickets.
For adults - deficiency causes osteomalacia.
Excess of vitamin D causes headaches, alopecia, nausea, drowsiness, blurred vision, pain in the long bones, the deposition of calcium deposits.
Dosage: 400 IU units during the day.
Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a fat soluble. Due to its antioxidant action, it is a protection of other vitamins (e.g. Vitamins A). Protects the body against free radicals, strengthens the walls of blood vessels and its capacity, causing their dilation and dissolution of blood clots. With the reduction of coagulation, it is used as an antiatherogenic medicine, it allows for the proper course of pregnancy. In cooperation with selenium it slows the ageing process of cells, strengthening connective tissue. In the food it is present in whole-grain bread, sprout and grains, vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower), soya beans and sunflower seeds, vegetable fat and hen egg yolks. Also it is used in sports medicine in the form of nutrients and supplements.
Vitamin E deficiency reduces building of red blood cells, results in changes in muscle and disorders of pregnancies.
Dosage: for children, 0.5 mg / 1 kg of weight; for adults 10-30 mg per day.
Mixed tocopherols - a method of complementing vitamin E, commonly used in supplementation, encompassing tocopherols and tocotrienols. The compounds from the group of vitamin E belong to the substances soluble in fats, therefore they should be taken with fats.
The main activity of vitamin E in the organism is its activity as antioxidant. It demonstrates the ability to neutralize free radicals and consequently to reduce oxidative stress. In this way, it positively influences the state of tissues of the organism. Supplementation with antioxidants is indicated as an effective method of delaying the signs of aging and it may demonstrate anticancer properties. Apart from this, supplementation with vitamin E, thanks to its antioxidant properties, positively influences the absorption of some other biologically active compounds.
Supplementation with vitamin E also demonstrates cardioprotective properties. Its proper concentration in blood prevents the pathological breakdown of erythrocytes, increases endurance of blood vessel walls and decreases the risk of developing atherosclerosis.
For maximal absorption and effectiveness, vitamin E should not be used with vitamin K and supplements containing iron.
Inositol is an organic compound from the group of B vitamins soluble in fluids, present in the natural or synthetic form, synthesized in plants, such as brewer's yeast, beans, grapefruit, cabbage, sprout of wheat, melons and animal (liver). Along with choline is included in the lecithin. It affects the cell nutrition of the central nervous system (brain) by reducing the level of LDL (bad cholesterol), this makes it applicable in treatment of Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. It has a calming effect. There has been a beneficial effect of inositol on the skin and hair reported.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) is soluble in the liquid. It participates in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. By reducing the amount of fat in the blood do not enable deposition of the body. It helps the absorption of magnesium and vitamin B12 (cobalamin). It works on the muscle antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory pain in the joints. It acts anti. It provides efficient operation of the brain. It increases energy increasing vigor of a man. The demand for vitamin B6 increases during pregnancy and breast-feeding infants. The natural product is: yeast, eggs, wheat germ, meat (liver), wheat bran, nuts, peanuts peanuts, soybeans. There is a hypothesis that can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
Deficiency of vitamin B6 causes abnormal metabolism of proteins, decrease in lymphocytes in the blood, causes a feeling of lethargy and fatigue intensifies.
Dosage: 1.5-2.5 mg daily (increased demand during pregnancy and lactation).
Folic acid - also known as vitamin B9, is a synthetic form of naturally occurring folates. It needs to be transformed to folates in order to be biologically active also in the human organism. Therefore, its supplementation is recommended to people who do not have problems with methylation processes.
The majority of people associate folic acid with the period of pregnancy. It is definitely a justified association. Proper supply of vitamin B9 conditions correct development of the fetus and prevents disorders of neural tube defects in a baby.
Supplementation with folic acid also demonstrates positive influence on the functions of the nervous system of adults. Some sources say that it is conducive to maintaining beneficial emotional states. Moreover, folic acid takes part in the process of erythropoiesis, thanks to which it enables efficient production of red cells.
Supplementation with folic acid should be also considered by men who deal with low sperm quality. It was proven that complementing the level of vitamin B9 is conducive to increasing reproductive abilities of men.
What is cyanocobalamin?
Cyanocobalamin is a basic, the most commonly met form of vitamin B12 in vitamin B complexes and multivitamins available on the market.
Vitamin B12 is the most known for its influence on neurology. It takes part in building and regenerating myelin sheaths of neurons, thanks to which it contributes to the protection of the nervous system against damages. Because of the ability to increase the level of S-Adenosyl methionine, vitamin B12 may contribute to more efficient synthesis of many neurotransmitters, thanks to which it positively influences well-being and psychical condition.
This vitamin is also engaged in the process of blood production and its deficiencies contribute to the creation of megaloblastic anemia. Its deficits may also concern vegetarians and vegans, elderly people, people with absorption disorders and those using drugs neutralizing gastric acid.
Cyanocobalamin is included in the composition of many complex vitamin supplements that may be found in the offer of muscle-zone.pl.
Biotin (vitamin H, co-enzyme R) is in a group of B vitamins, due to the presence of sulphur compounds it is involved in the synthesis of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Also synthesized in the intestines. It enhances the production of hormones and regulates cholesterol levels. It reduces muscle pain. It prevents hair loss and graying of hair. It soothes the skin inflammations. No toxic effects. Often combined with other B group vitamins and vitamin A. The natural sources of biotin are: whole grain bread, yeast, eggs (yolk), milk, brown rice and cheese.
Daily demand: 100-300 mg per day
Calcium carbonate – a salt of carbonic acid and calcium, used in dietary supplements as one of the calcium forms, because of its high bioavailability. It is an alkaline salt, which is why it is used for neutralisation of the environment in the stomach.
Calcium is a macroelement necessary for the proper functioning of the body system. It is a building material of teeth and bones as well as it determines their mechanical strength. The proper supply of calcium prevents osteoporosis in elderly people and allows for the proper development of skeletal system in children. It is an activator of many enzymes, is involved in the inflammatory processes and regulates secretion of particular hormones. It is also essential for muscle contraction and determines blood coagulation. Moreover, calcium ions allow for transmission of nerve impulses by synapses, so that they regulate the proper neural transmission.
The demand for calcium increases with training intensity, which is why it is recommended for athletes to increase calcium supply. Calcium deficiency can be caused by high-protein diet.
Iodine - more than two-thirds of iodine is stored in the thyroid gland and it is a component produced by it hormones - thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which are essential in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals and regulating the processes of growth, causing it usefulness in sports supplementation. It is also the ingredient of weight loss products. Regulates and controls body temperature. Natural source of acquisition of iodine are: bladderwrack, seafood, sea fish and onion and vegetables growing in soil containing this element and most of all iodized salt ..
Deficiency of iodine in the body cause hypothyroidism, and consequently overweight, mental slowing (cretinism inclusive). It is the cause of a goitre. Iodine deficiency can be caused by rhodanates and polyphenols (e.g. contained in cabbage and cauliflower), hemagglutinin found in legumes.
Excess iodine can result in inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis (this happens in a small percentage of cases).
Dosage: Treatment of iodine should be done under medical supervision. Daily demand for adults is 150 mcg. For pregnant women daily demand increases to 175 mcg.
Kelp - seaweed belonging to the brown algae in the order Laminariales, which is a valuable source of iodine, necessary for thyroid function and reduce body fat, affecting the metabolic rate as well as participating in the detoxification of the body. It is a source of alginates, minerals and vitamins. Positive effect on the appearance of the skin, nails and teeth and hair. Available in dietary supplements and sports in the category of "health and beauty" in the form mono-preparations and multiple mineralizing a vitamin supplements, fat burners and other means of thermogenic effect, slimming, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: in terms of pure iodine 150 - 250mcg / 24h. Higher doses by prior arrangement with your doctor or nutritionist.
Magnesium (element from the group of alkaline earth metals, atomic no. 12, a chemical symbol - Mg), one of the most important health microelements, participates in the synthesis process of the disintegration of high energy compounds and processes of transformation of hydrocarbons and fats. It affects the dilation of blood vessels and lower blood pressure, prevents hypercoagulable state. Shortages affect cardiac arrhythmias, malignant muscle cramps, insomnia and anxiety. It is a component of many dietary supplements and found in foods such as whole grain bread, legumes, buckwheat, rice, fish, meat, as well as chocolate, cocoa and nuts.
Dosage of 100 - 500 mg / day
Magnesium oxide – the most common form of this macroelement in supplementation that is essential to the human body. It belongs to a group of key intracellular cations and that is why its adequate levels are critical to maintaining the body’s homeostasis. An active lifestyle increases requirements for magnesium and that is why its supplementation is recommended strongly to athletes.
The most common symptoms associated with magnesium deficiencies are muscle cramps and eye twitches. This is connected with a significant impact of magnesium ions on the efficiency of the nervous system. Its adequate intake helps maintain neuromotor fitness. Deficiencies of this element are also said to aggravate symptoms of depression.
What is more, magnesium supplementation supports healthy cardiovascular function. It is suggested that its deficiencies promote the development of atherosclerotic lesions and hypertension. Too low dietary magnesium intake is associated with arrythmia and increased risk of heart attack.
Magnesium supplements are recommended to individuals doing hard mental work and learning. Its healthy levels enhance focus and may facilitate learning. It has a beneficial impact on sleep quality.
Zinc citrate - an organic form of zinc with very good assimilability and bioavailability. In one molecule of zinc citrate, zinc ions constitute 34% of the compound’s mass. Therefore, 100 mg of the substance will provide 34 mg of zinc ions. It should be borne in mind when buying dietary supplements, in which only the mass of the whole compound in a portion is provided. Supplementation with zinc in the form of citrate in some people may cause ailments of the digestive system - nausea, appetite drop or stomachache. Zinc in the form of zinc citrate should be best taken between meals, due to the fact that many food products may limit the absorption of this element, especially products rich in phytates, dairy products or fiber.
Zinc picolinate – an organic zinc salt, its highly available form of proven ability to increase the element level in the body system. Zinc belongs to the microelements essential for the human body system and the demand results mainly from the fact that it is present in active centres of many enzymes conducting the reactions responsible for homeostasis.
It forms also protein domains binding DNA, called also zinc fingers, which determines the activity of many regulatory proteins. The proper supply of zinc ensures smooth functioning of the immune system. It affects also metabolism, both by modifications of digestive enzymes activity and influence on insulin secretion in beta pancreatic cells.
Zinc protects also the cells from the action of free radicals. The proper supply of the element can also increase testosterone synthesis, as it reduces the activity of aromatase. In men, zinc prevents prostate cancer and in women – regulates menstruation.
Exogenous methionine is an amino acid containing sulphur in its composition. It provides multi metabolism, with the indispensable help of vitamin B6. Participates in the synthesis of phospholipids (e.g. Lecithin), carnitine responsible for transport in the body of long-chain fatty acids, burned in the mitochondria cells (organelles in cells with a separate kernel), along with cystine forms cysteine. It is in the body antioxidant function. Natural source of acquisition of methionine are high-protein foods of animal origin (eggs, meat, fish), vegetable (sesame seeds, grain products). Available in all protein and carbohydrate protein and amino acid supplements such EAA and contain so-called all-day amino acids, supporting the liver preparations and cosmetics supporting the growth and condition of hair, skin and nails.
Zinc gluconate - a highly bioavailable form of zinc, a trace element belonging to the group of essential microelements. Being the component of numerous enzymatic systems in the human organism, it demonstrates considerable influence on its functioning.
It is an important regulator of work of the immune system, it regulates the processes of production and activity of leukocytes. It promotes the efficiency of the immunity barrier of the organism, has direct antibacterial influence, which is taken advantage of in topical application of zinc preparations.
Supplementation with zinc is also used in order to increase the level of testosterone in the organism. It demonstrates an inhibiting influence on the activity of aromatase P450, which transforms the male sex hormone into estrogen. In this way, it has promoting influence on the concentration of the male sex hormone in the organism.
Zinc is also important when it comes to the functions of the nervous system. Its deficiencies decrease the efficiency of cognitive functions, inhibit concentration and may negatively influence emotional states. Some sources suggest that zinc deficiency may be related to depression.
Some drugs from the group of NSAIDs, inducing acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen should not be applied with supplements containing zinc.
Selenium (element, chemical symbol Se, atomic no. 34, from chalcogenide, it is present in several allotropic forms). It is supplied the body with food in the form of seleno-amino acids (selenomethionine - gathering supplies, and selenocysteine – a component of glutathione peroxidase, deiodinase and seleno-proteins). Regulates the functioning of the thyroid gland. It affects the growth and development, including sexual development (by increasing production and sperm motility). It affects the flexibility of the tissue, removes some of the toxins from the body and destroys cancer cells and reduces the severity of menopause in women. Natural products containing selenium are seafood (sea fish, oysters, bladderwrack) and vegetable products (broccoli, onions, wheat germ, bran, tomatoes) and animal products (poultry, eggs). It is also included in the composition of vitamin-mineral and mineral supplements. Selenium supplementation is recommended as a dietary supplement of active people having diet poor in this element, and as a factor increasing the body's immunity.
Selenium deficiency increases the risk of developing cancer and heart disease. Symptoms of selenium deficiency are: cardiomyopathy, growth stoppage, disorders of detoxification processes which may lead to damage to the kidneys and liver.
An excess of selenium can lead to selenosis (the disease, the symptoms are: loss of hair, nail cracks, lesions).
daily demand of selenium for pregnant women 65 mcg; nursing mothers 75 mcg; men 7 mcg.
Copper - trace mineral that facilitates the introduction of iron into hemoglobin, allowing the correct functioning of antioxidant processes. It is an important component of enzymes that affect the processes of aerobic metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and in the formation of collagen. With proper diet, do not use supplements containing copper, as an overdose can cause insomnia, hair loss. It occurs in foods such as legumes, offal, plums, seafood. Copper compounds must be used in a responsible way, because many of them have toxic properties.
Dosing: A sufficient amount of copper provides proper diet.
Manganese, of which a natural source is chocolate, grain products with whole grain, nuts, legumes and dried cranberry, is a component of enzymes and their activator. It stimulates the properties and functionality of connective tissue and provides proper functioning of the brain. It affects the function of the pancreas, ensuring proper insulin metabolism and condition of the bone and joints. Magnesium deficiency contributes to serious disorders in synthesis of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin, reduction in insulin sensitivity of tissues, affects bone resorption. Manganese chelates are used in complexometry in chemical analysis and in medicine for the treatment of severe poisoning (antitoxin) by heavy metals, in sports supplementation, manganese impact on the functioning of the locomotor system is used. It is a component of the so-called regenerators of joints and a vitamin-mineralizing and mineralizing supplements.
Chromium (chemical element from transition group of the chromium, chemically active) is actively involved in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It comes in the easily assimilable organic form and inorganic. Along with insulin, as a component of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), is used in insulin-dependent diabetes treatment, insulin involved in the metabolism of glucose in t proteins transport. Activator of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Available in animal origin products (liver, veal, chicken, turkey meat, oysters) and plant-origin (bananas, broccoli, cereal, wheat germ, spinach). Supplements containing chromium are recommended for fat loss (also thermogenic), and improving the functioning of the body. The sports supplementation used chromium in the form of mono-preparations or in the form of vitamin-mineral minerals supplements.
Chromium deficiency results in impaired glucose, reducing the insulin sensitivity. It causes a decrease in immunity and endurance of the body. It may be a cause of coronary heart disease. Sometimes it causes neurological disorders.
Dosage: A varied diet prevents from the deficiency of chromium in the body.
Dosage: The recommended dose of 50-150 mg per day.
Chromium Picolinate is a complex containing trivalent chromium and picolinic acid, for greater assimilation, it has chelating and anti-inflammatory properties. Trivalent chromium is a part of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), supporting the anabolic effect of insulin in the creatine transport into the muscle cells. Chromium is used to treat type 1 diabetes melitus, and with insulin it is involved in the metabolism of glucose it transport of protein. It is an activator of enzymes involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Chromium picolinate is used by people active beyond sports and in sports supplementation as fat burners affecting fat reduction, weight loss, as well as a compound which enhances uptake of nutrients by muscle cells and the vitamin and mineralizing supplements, available www.muscle-zone. pl
Potassium citrate is an organic form of potassium, which is characterized by high level of absorption. This element is essential in the proper functioning of the organism. It regulates water balance, thanks to which it is possible to maintain homeostasis.
Potassium also helps to maintain proper blood pressure and is essential to maintain proper work of the heart. I takes part in the proper functioning of the nervous system - it takes part in nerve impulse conduction and supports the work of the brain by its oxygenation.
Introducing potassium to a diet is incredibly vital in case of sportsmen, as during long-lasting effort, it decreases the risk of the organism’s dehydration. It also ensures proper work of muscles. This element is also essential in the process of protein synthesis.
Potassium aspartate - a highly assimilable form of potassium, mainly encountered in dietary supplements in combination with magnesium aspartate. It is used in order to effectively increase the supply of this mineral in a diet. It is especially important for physically active people, as it is indicated that intensive physical effort is conducive to disposing of potassium ions from the organism. Diet rich in salt is also conducive to its deficiencies.
Potassium is the most common cation present in the intercellular fluid, thanks to which it is incredibly important to maintain the organism’s homeostasis. It is an electrolyte, ensures optimal permeability of cell membranes, facilitates efficient biochemical transformations in the cytoplasm. It is also an activator of many enzymes, due to which it conditions the course of many reactions in the organism.
Insufficient supply of potassium leads to water-electrolyte disorders in the organism. It mainly gives symptoms of general weakness and increased fatigue, it decreases cognitive functions motor coordination. It negatively influences the work of heart, may disturb the functioning of the whole muscle system. In hypocalcemia, nervous system disfunctions may also appear.
Celery (Apium graveolens) is known in antiquity, regarded as a universal drug with action: diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and stimulating. Used as raw material for food and medical use, is the celery root (Radix Apia), celery herb (Herba Apia) and fruit (Fructus Apia) and celery seed. Rich in active ingredients alcohols, asparagine, choline, sugars, flavonoids, carotene, mineral salts (phosphorus, potassium and calcium), mucus, and vitamins (B1, B2, PP). It is used for supplementation for reducing body fat, also used are its antirheumatic properties.
Cauliflower (Brasicca cauliflora) widely cultivated plant of the cabbage family, which raw material is food inflorescence. Richly endowed with protein, vitamins C and A, B1 and B2, K, and minerals (zinc, phosphorus, iodine, magnesium, potassium, sulphur, calcium and iron). It also contains carotenoids and a range of active health beneficial compounds. Studies indicate the increasing importance of the cauliflower in the prevention of cancer. It has a strengthening effect, vitaminizing and mineralizing. In powder form it is a component of the nutrients and supplements for health and beauty, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) is a plant known for its properties that relieve menopausal symptoms. It eliminates also diseases that accompany menopause.
The main bioactive substance found in the plant is diosgenin, classified among so-called steroid saponins. The substance is structurally similar to cholesterol and is involved in the synthesis of corticcosteroids and sex hormones. Furthermore, it shows anti-inflammatory properties and exerts a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells.
Supplementation with wild yam root brings numerous benefits, especially to women – it optimises the menstrual cycle and reduces menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, excessive sweating and mood swings). It is a perfect natural and safe alternative for hormone preparations which does not interfere with the body’s hormonal balance (functions as an oestradiol mimic but does not increase its levels).
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is a widely cultivated vegetable, derived from Asia. Raw material for the food is a green (Herba Spinanae) containing at vitamins (A, B complex, C, E, H, K, provitamin A, PP), folic acid, carotene and minerals (phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, large amounts of iron) protein, fibre, sugars, flavonoids (rutin), steroidal saponin, betaine, organic acids. It is a potent antioxidant. A beneficial effect on lipid metabolism, lowering homocysteine levels and reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. Complements significantly the level of iron in the body to protect against anaemia. Lutein contained in spinach helps to keep eyes in good condition. Spinach has the effect of reinforcing vitaminizing and mineralizing. Included in the of nutritional, antioxidant, strengthening supplements, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Hesperidin - bioflavonoid occurring naturally in plants (fruit, vegetables and herbs), is an antioxidant binding free radicals, is beneficial to cardiovascular system (strengthening of blood vessels, improved circulation). Increases the effectiveness of ascorbic acid and maintaining the appropriate structure of collagen, affects the state of connective tissue. It also has anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic potential (reducing the release of histidine) and increases immunity. In the supplementation there is lack of hesperidin mono-preparation. Both in the form of natural or synthetic, present in combination with quercetin, rutin and ascorbic acid. Available in supplements to support immunity, and in some creatine stacks and nitrogen boosters.
Dosage: Recommended in sports supplementation 20-100mg per day.
Betaine (N, N, N-trimethylglycine, the TMG) is methyl glycine derivative participating in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. It is present in food of plant origin and produced by the body in the liver or kidneys. The medicine uses it in the treatment of gastrointestinal and digestive disorders and hyperhomocysteinemia. In the supplements that increase the level of homocysteine used together with glycocyamine, indirectly influences the endogenous synthesis of creatine. There is no mono-preparation supplement containing betaine. Available in creatine stacks and the detoxicating supplements.
Chlorine (chemical element from the group of halogens) - in the natural form of gas it is poisonous and water-soluble (until recently used as a disinfectant in the water supply system, now replaced by fluorination). It is chemically active element. It is used in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium (KCl). It participates in the process of digestion and maintains acid-base balance in the body, removes toxic products of metabolism in the liver (antitoxin). Natural source of chlorine for the body is salt and bladderwrack.
Chlorine deficiency can occur due to excessive sweating, vomiting, causing digestive tract problems. It also causes loss of hair and teeth.
Excess chlorine, for example. Drink excessive amounts of chlorinated water, destroys bacterial flora and vitamin E.
Dosage: Daily dose should not exceed 15 grams.
Ginger root (Zingiber Officinale Radix) as a herbal raw material is widely used as a source of, among others, gingerols. Compounds containing organic components of ginger root are characterized by high biological activity. Ginger root is used in medicine, due to the prevention of infection, to ensure a balance of gastrointestinal bacteria, involved in the production of bile. It has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the circulatory system as an antioxidant, lowers blood pressure, causing a delay in the processes of formation of LDL cholesterol (inhibitor). As a thermogenic it reduces appetite processes and sometimes it is a component of weight loss complexes. Through participation in the transformation of thermogenic lipolysis, is one of the valuable fat burners. The active substances contained in it are a component of arthritis regenerators (in combination with glucosamine including or curcumin). In the sports supplementation it is valued for its anti-inflammatory properties to support the process of healing and recovery after an injury of motor organs (especially the joints). It co-creates so called joints regenerators with chondroitin, glucosamine and curcumin.
Spirulina is a dietary supplement containing two species of algae (cyanobacteria): Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima occurring in the area of lakes in tropical climates, containing BCAA [3 essential amino acids having a branched chain aliphatic side (isoleucine, leucine, and valine) and a similar course of metabolic processes in muscle tissue. In its natural form found in high-protein animal foods (i.e. beef, milk proteins). BCAA have the anti-catabolic potential and anabolic. Support energy carriers in the energy crisis and affect the functioning of the nervous system (eliminate stress, reduce fatigue), and hormone activity and kinases responsible for the metabolism of proteins. In the sports supplementation it is used as support elements functional capacity (strength and endurance) and post-workout recovery; also anti-catabolic and anabolic catalyst of change. Taking BCAA after exercise almost immediately restores the levels of these amino acids in the blood (excluding liver) and supplies the muscle tissue. Leucine results in the activation of mTOR (starting anabolism of muscle proteins) and has a reinforcing effect of insulin which acts on the PI3-kinase and protein kinase B). Branched chain amino acids BCAA, readily used by strength athletes, strength-endurance and endurance], organic acids (GLA, ALA, Linoleic acid, and others) and vitamins B and C, D, E. Spirulina improves the functioning of the nervous system (improves the ability of concentration and memory), reduces total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, belongs to the group of antioxidants. In the supplementation often used by the elderly, available as a nutritional and functional supplements and due to the thermogenic effect by people on weight-loss diet, available at www.muscle-zone.pl.
Chlorella (green algae) - a single-celled algae living in freshwater and in a humid environment, it contains many nutrients: sugar alcohols, phytosterols, carrageenan, carotenoids, minerals (magnesium, potassium and sodium), laminarin, terpenoids and vitamins (group B, C , E). It is an effective antioxidant. The active ingredients are antibacterial, immune, inflammatory and strengthening. Mineral salts (alginates) stimulate collagen synthesis and phytosterols participate in the production of elastin. It is used in cosmetic formulations and in the category of "health and beauty", it is a component of dietary supplements that affect the various body functions.
Barley grass - powdered green shoots of barley (Hordeum sativum), received as a result of freeze-drying process. It contains many nutrients such as amino acids, minerals, vitamins and other antioxidant and alkaline compounds, allowing to maintain the acid alkaline balance of the organism. It supports the functioning of the whole body, with particular emphasis on the immune system. Used in cosmetics industry, but mostly in the nutritional and functional, mineralizing and vitamin enriched supplements.
Echinacea Purpurea (Echinacea) - used in folk medicine as a tonic, immunizing and accelerating convalescence. It is a source of active compounds: flavonoids (including quercetin, rutoside), phenolic glycoside and chlorogenic acid. It is a potent antioxidant. Increases appetite, accelerating potential for weight gain (e.g. in weight sports). It is antipyretic. Applied externally, heals wounds and scratches. It is a component of herbal and herbal-vitamin properties which are improving immunity, supporting the exercise capacity (especially in martial arts).
Dosage: according to various sources can be used every day, or every two or three days.
What is Lactobacillus acidophilus?
Lactobacillus acidophilus is a strain of rod-shaped bacteria with the ability to produce lactic acid which is beneficial to our health. These bacteria reside mainly in the intestinal mucosa. Like other probiotic strains, it can easily survive adverse conditions prevailing in specific sections of the digestive tract. As a result, it passes through the small intestine after oral administration and adheres to epithelial cells, forming small colonies. What is more, the strain was detected in the vagina, cervix and urethra. Owing to that, they can combat numerous diseases and maintain a healthy digestive and genitourinary system by competing with pathogenic microorganisms.
Apart from lactic acid production, the bacteria strain can synthesise also other organic acids which have the ability to inhibit the adhesion and proliferation of such pathogens as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Candida albicans, Shigella, Clostridium, Listeria and Helicobacter. By maintaining the normal pH in the intestines, it promotes the digestion of food and absorption of micro- and macronutrients.
It has been reported that this strain is capable of synthesising vitamin K. Consequently, it supports proper blood clotting and has a positive impact on bone structure.
By synthesising lactase, it can also promote lactose digestion, whereby treating unpleasant digestive ailments after consuming dairy products. It uses many bacteriocins for fighting pathogens, such as acidolin, acidophilin, lactobacillin, lactocin and many more.
It is applied in medicine in the treatment of food poisoning, improving the body’s immunity and treating illnesses with antibiotics. It is a component of many prebiotic, probiotic and functional formulas and various nutritional supplements available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Lactobacillus bulgaricus – what is it?
Lactobacillus bulgaricus (known before as Lactobacillus delbrueckii) is a Gram-positive bacteria species, able to convert lactose into lactic acid. It is non-motile and does not form spores. It is present in digestive system of mammals and fermented products. It is one of the bacteria used for yoghurt fermentation. It was first identified in 1905 by the Bulgarian doctor Stamen Grigorov.
It is classified as a probiotic, so that it has positive influence on the human body system, i.a. by supporting the fight against pathogenic bacteria and promoting restoration of homeostasis after microbiome disorders. It can be also potentially beneficial for the functioning of the immune system. It is helpful in fight against diarrhoea caused by antibiotics and can improve digestion and absorption of nutrients. There are some indications that it can improve condition of people suffering from bowels inflammations.
Lactobacillus bulgaricus contained in many complex probiotic preparations which can be found in the offer of muscle-zone.pl
Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is a herbaceous plant originating from Asia, cultivated in Poland. The raw material is the root of licorice (Radix Glycyrrhizae) barked (along with its runners). It contains active compounds: Betaine, choline, phytosterols, flavonoids, isoflavones, acidic polysaccharides, mannitol, saponins triterpenes, carbohydrate and coumarin compounds. Shows the anti-tumor effect, healing, immunological, anti-allergic anti-ulcer, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory. A positive effect on bones and joints and skin. Increases, by influencing the hydration, performance of skeletal muscles. Used to treat ulcers of the stomach, reducing the emission of hydrochloric acid and duodenum, catarrh of the gastrointestinal tract, inflammation of the mouth, throat and bronchi without age restrictions, under the conditions of use as prescribed by a doctor doses (excess medication and time of their use may cause side effects as retention of sodium ions and water in the body) and increased blood pressure. Due to the estrogenic potential, it can be used by women. Preparations available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: the dose and duration of use - as directed by the doctor about
Pancreatin is the enzyme complex which is a substitute for the endogenous pancreatic enzymes containing digestive enzymes: lipase (for decomposition of fats), amylase (hydrating the starch), and protease (digesting protein) regulating the gastrointestinal tract (absorption of nutrients, increased appetite, weight gain) and the digestion (eliminates constipation, bloating). It shows a high activity in the small intestine due to sensitivity to an alkaline environment. In the sports supplementation (and not only) it is a part of enzyme preparations in the prevention of gastric ailments and for high calorie diet during increase of the weight time of the representatives of sculpting disciplines and during periods of increased intensity of workouts, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: permitted use according to the manufacturer's instructions on the leaflets and packaging, the form of administration should be determined by the physician or dietician (preferred enteral preparations).
Bromelain - an enzyme from the group of proteases. The source is the pineapple (pineapple Fructus Sativa) and pineapple leaves, containing bromelain in a form of a mixture of enzymes similar to pepsin and papain responsible for the hydrolysis of peptide bonds of protein. Bromelain in the first place, in the sports supplementation, increases the digestibility of proteins, especially in the case of high-protein diets and has anti-inflammatory and anti-edema. This prevents overloading on the digestive system and diarrhoea.
It is a component of supplements for athletes and supplements supporting musculoskeletal system.
Papain – a digestive enzyme is obtained from the papaya fruit, causing an initial distribution of animal protein in the hydrolysis, increases the digestibility of amino acids, facilitates digestive processes, the impact on the gastric mucosa reduces the risk of peptic ulcer disease, according to in not fully unacknowledged studies it increases immunity. In the sports supplementation it is used in the composition of protein supplements, vitamin supplements and enzyme complexes available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: from a few dozen to several hundred mg / 24h
Boron - an element of boron group, symbol B, atomic number (Z) - 5, belongs to a group of micronutrients. The organism, it is responsible for the synthesis of nucleic acids and prevents the release of excess calcium from the bones. Is an activator of enzymes in metabolism. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits (grapefruit, bitter orange), legumes, grapes, malt beer. The supplementation is rarely used, mostly in vitamin and a vitamin-mineralizing supplements.
Dosage: the lack of standards for daily consumption. Excess of boron is toxic for the organism.
Boron citrate – what is it?
Boron citrate is a combination of citric acid and boron, a trace element, whose the most interesting and valuable property is stimulation of testosterone synthesis.
Scientific studies demonstrated that boron supplementation not only positively affects the increase in total testosterone level in men, but also can decrease the globulin level, which binds sex hormones (SHBG), which raises the levels of the bioactive free testosterone. Complementing boron in diet can protect menopausal women from the natural decline in androgens and estrogens levels. Thanks to that, it contributes to the reduction in osteoporosis risk, as sex hormones, such as testosterone and estradiol, play an important role in maintaining high mineral density of bones.
Boron deficiencies can induce neurological symptoms, resembling symptoms of magnesium deficiencies, such as low activity of delta waves, which hinders relaxation. Boron deficiency deteriorates also cognitive functions.
Boron citrate can be found in complex preparations available in the offer of muscle-zone.pl
Zeaxanthin is a natural plant dye, a compound classified as carotenoids found in foods of plant origin, essential for the proper functioning of vision. Located on the retina, the so-called. yellow macula, it is responsible for visual acuity. Together with lutein (belonging to the carotenoid) it is an antioxidant, also it has the ability to absorb energy of blue light protecting eyes from organ damage.
Zeaxanthin is a component of formulations (often in combination with other carotenoids) enhancing the functioning of the organs of sight.
Dosage: Up to 2 mg per day.
Cryptoxanthin is a natural dye derived from foods of plant origin, belongs to the carotenoids. It is present in the skins of apples, bitter orange and papaya, as well as in foods of animal origin (e.g. hen eggs yolks and butter). It has the antioxidant potential, acts as provitamin A. In the sports supplementation itis a component of nutrient (vitamins and vitamin-mineral) and functional supplements. Often found in mixtures with other carotenoids (e.g. Beta-carotene lutein). Available in the form of supplements at www.muscle-zone.pl
Lycopene, an organic compound, carotenoid form xanthophylls group, a natural dye of plant origin, colouring to bright red, occurring i.e. in tomatoes and carrots. It has the strongest antioxidant potential (relatively to the singlet oxygen) from the carotenes. It is not participating, in contrast to other carotenes, in the transformation of vitamin A. It reduces the risk of lung cancer, atherosclerosis and other diseases of the circulatory system, it is a component of nutrient, vitaminizing, vitamin-mineralizing and functional supplements, (often in combination with beta-carotene, lutein) supporting reduction of body fat, improving skin complexion, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: 1 - 3 g / 24h
Lutein, a derivative of alpha-carotene is a natural plant dye, colouring in yellow, is also present in the yolk of egg. In the body, located primarily in the retina of the human eye (together with Zeaxanthin), it acts as a natural filter for the eye, absorbing ultraviolet radiation. It is a powerful antioxidant, neutralizing free radicals. Available in the form of mono-preparation supplements and multi-compound supplements with antioxidant, protecting the eyes, action, as well as multivitamins, creatine stacks and no-boosters.