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Jarrow Formulas PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline Quinone) is a dietary supplement which contains pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a natural substance of a structure similar to a vitamin, a cofactor for many enzymes and one of the strongest antioxidants.
The supplement has a broad spectrum of health promoting and nootropic properties. The benefits from its use include improvement in memory, cognitive functions and immunity as well as protection from the negative consequences of the body system ageing. This is an innovative approach to health and mental capacity. PQQ acts at the cellular level and solves the problems of mitochondrial disorders, which according to the newest research are involved in the pathogenesis of the most diseases of affluence.
PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone, methoxatin) is a natural compound which is commonly present in all plant and some fruits (kiwis, papayas, parsley and green tea). The human body system is unable to synthesise it by itself, so if you want to make use of the beneficial influence of PQQ on the organism functions, you need do provide it from the outside.
Numerous studies have proven that the total PQQ exclusion from the diet inhibits the development of animal organisms, weakens the immune and reproductive functions and leads to a rapid decline in the number of mitochondria in tissues. On the contrary, supplementing the organism resources with PQQ can slow down the body system ageing and positively affects its functions.
Efficient energy metabolism
It is estimated that up to 90% of energy needed for living is generated in the mitochondria. The efficiency of this process is determined by the number and condition of the mitochondria. PQQ is a crucial nutrient, involved in different pathways of cellular signalling which are important for the process of mitochondrial biogenesis.
PQQ stimulates CREB (a signalling protein), so that it stimulates the spontaneous growth of new mitochondria in ageing cells. It stimulates PGC-1 alpha and DJ-1, signalling molecules which are responsible for the growth and condition of mitochondria. It activates also the genes which regulate the protection and repair of damaged mitochondrial structures.
PQQ shows nootropic properties. Clinical research has demonstrated that the regular supplementation with a daily PQQ dose of 20 mg, lasting for 3 months, contributed to the improvement in short-time memory and cognitive functions in all people tested. These led to better results in mental capacity tests.
PQQ is an activator of releasing the nerve growth factor (NGF). It determines creation of new nerve connections, proper neurons functions and reconstruction of damaged myelin sheaths. Both the number of neurons and the efficient communication between them are crucial for good memory and intellectual performance.
PQQ minimizes the risk of neurological disorders and is an important element of the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson’s disease). It acts in different ways:
- it protects neurons from damage caused by the toxicity of glutamate, oxidopamine and mercury;
- it prevents the accumulation of beta-amyloid and alpha-synuclein in the body system, which are toxic proteins inhibiting the free nutrients exchange between cells and blood, involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease;
- it slows down the oxidation of DJ-1 protein which is responsible for the development of Parkinson’s disease.
PQQ is one of the strongest antioxidants and shows higher effectiveness in neutralizing peroxide free radicals than tocopherol (vitamin E). It acts as a modulator of the redox reaction – it maintains the proper balance between oxidation and reduction.
PQQ protects mitochondria from oxidative stress and damage caused by the negative influence of free radicals. It inhibits the lipid peroxidation and scavenges hydroxyl and peroxide free radicals. As an inhibitor of iNOS gene expression, it reduces the production of harmful reactive nitrogen species (RNS).
Support for the immune system
Thanks to the increase in immune sensitivity, PQQ brings many benefits for the immune system. Numerous studies have proven that the exclusion of PQQ from the body system leads to the reduction in interleukin 2 (IL-2) level, a cytokine which is the most important growth factor of lymphocytes T. And vice versa, supplementing organism resources with PQQ results in the increase in the sensitivity of lymphocytes B and T to mitogenes action.
The heart is one of the most energy-intensive organs. It contains also a great number of mitochondria which produce cellular energy. Large amounts of energy produced in the mitochondria put the sensitive structures at permanent risk of free radicals attacks.
PQQ protects heart cells from oxidative stress and damage caused by the reactive oxygen species. Thanks to that it minimizes the risk of coronary artery disease and infarction. Moreover, it stabilizes the cardiac rhythm and prevents tachycardia.
To sum it all up, PQQ is an innovative preparation which slows down ageing process and protects the body system from its harmful consequences. The supplement acts at the cellular level, adds vitality and improves memory and cognitive functions. Used preventively, it reduces the risk of neurodegenerative diseases development.
PQQ dosing is not standardised yet. It is assumed that the positive effects of the preparation use can be already observed by a dose of 10 mg a day, and the doses of 20 mg a day are accepted to be safe.
The presence of food does not affect the compound absorption, so it can be used both with a meal and independently of it.
To increase the supplement power of action it is recommended to combine it with coenzyme Q10.
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Sodium is an important component of the intracellular fluids, and is a regulator of acid-base balance. Along with potassium affects the proper of growth and provides the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. The source of acquisition is table salt (NaCl) and bladderwrack, shellfish, bacon, beef, and of plant beets and carrots. People on salt-free diet should avoid, among others, spicy sauces and smoked meats and sausages.
Sodium deficiency is very rare, at heaving sweating after a long effort (e.g. in the marathon).
Excess sodium increases blood pressure (especially for the elderly), edema and increased thirst. Exceeding the daily dose of 14g a day can cause poisoning.
Salt (sodium chloride, or table salt), natural source of electrolytes (chlorine and potassium), regulating water and electrolyte and acid-base balance of the body, affecting the nervous system and blood pressure. Sodium is an essential element for the proper growth. The proper dose of salt prevents overheating of the body and solar stroke. It provides the proper functioning of muscles and nerves the body. Chlorine in combination with sodium, is involved in the digestive process and maintains acid-base balance in the body, as antitoxin removes toxic products of metabolism in the liver. Salt is a flavour component and preservative of many foods, nutritional supplements and mixtures of electrolytes, available at www.muscle-zone.pl
Dosage: no specific standards of consumption, used so as to provide sufficient amount of electrolytes to the body (sodium and chloride).
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